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Week 1 Lecture Notes

by: Jane Sible

Week 1 Lecture Notes HUM 3122-03

Jane Sible
GPA 3.64
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About this Document

This is mostly the beginnings of the history of Japan.
Japan (Honors)
Dr. Cynthia Dunn
Class Notes




Popular in Japan (Honors)

Popular in Humanities

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jane Sible on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 3122-03 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Cynthia Dunn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Japan (Honors) in Humanities at University of Northern Iowa.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
August 24, 2016 History of Japan  Physical characteristics: o the nation of Japan is smaller than California but larger than Great Britain o in latitudes it is similar to the East Coast of the U.S. o it is an island nation so it has been isolated from the rest of the world and has only been occupied once o at .37 million km there are 341 persons per square km making the population of Japan 126 million people  Ainu = indigenous inhabitants of Japan were actually Caucasian o Were moved to the island Hokkaido and were treated similarly to how the U.S. treated Native American o The Japanese we think of today are probably descended from people of Korea who moved to Japan when there was a land bridge between the two - Japan keeps track of time based primarily on different Periods, often named after a place or the emperor of the beginning, or a family who was constantly in power  Jomon Period 11,000 – 300 B.C.E. o The people were mainly hunter-gatherers and there is evidence of pottery made at this time  Yayoi Period 300 B.C.E. – 250 C.E. o Wheel thrown pottery is dated around this time, agriculture made an appearance in irrigated rice fields, and metal work in bronze and iron began  Tomb Period 250 – 552 C.E. o The tomb period is so titled based on the first appearances of actual nice tombs o People were divided into two classes at this time, the Uji and the Be  Uji = the warriors and ruling class  Be = the commoners who were assigned to a certain Uji to serve o Animism = belief in multiple gods and spirits, such as the spirit of the rock and of the tree [I think Pocahontas] also came around at this time  Kami = the name for the gods and spirits  Shinto = “Way of the gods” AKA the name for this religion th th  In the 6 – 9 centuries Chinese Influences came into play (Japan was not conquered but willingly adopted the new culture) o Yamato clan becomes the ruling family o Chinese writing is now used o Buddhism from the West is introduced and causes NO conflicts with the Shinto faith o In 702 the Taiho Law Code was written – this was the first written legal code for Japan  It claimed all the land of Japan as belonging to the Emperor, He gave the land to families to farm  Different families were supposed to get land every 5 years  Taxes were paid so that the people could farm on the land, the nobles were exempt from taxes o In 710 the city of Nara was made the capital  Nara Period 710 – 794 o First two histories of Japan were written at this time – they were mainly myth and legend  Kojiki in 712 Names of  Nihon Shoki in 720 the histories o The first poetry collection was written at this time as well: Manyoshu o In 794 the capital moved to Heiankyo (modern-day Kyoto)  Heian Period 794 – 1185 [smaller periods inside of the Heian Period called the Fujiwara Period (858 – 1160) and Taira period (1160 – 1185) based on the family in power] o The Fujiwara Period is so named because the Fujiwara family came into power by marrying into the Imperial line – Fujiwara Yoshifusa was the first member to control the Emperor, he was Regent to the Counselor o The Tale of Genji written in 1008 was the first novel from Japan by Lady Murasaki. It told of court life and the exploits young Genji got into o A shift in power gave the provinces more individual power instead of the court.  The commoners would give their land to the nearby nobles and pay the nobles rent to farm it so that they wouldn’t have to pay the more expensive taxes.  Managers of local estates gained power because the nobles were away at court and left these managers in charge.  Development of local military forces on the Eastern frontier because the capital wouldn’t protect them. o War between the Taira and Minamoto clans resulted in the Taira Period from 1160–1185  At the end of the Fujiwara Period, the two clans were fighting for power August 26, 2016 History Cont.  Taira Kiyomori defeated the Minamoto clan and took control of the capital thus beginning the Taira Period (1160 – 1185) o Daughter of Kiyomori married the Emperor that Kiyomori himself put on the throne o Kiyomori did not extend control beyond the capital or try to conquer any new lands o Fatal flaw – left a Minamoto alive = Minamoto Yoritomo and brother Yoshitsune  The Minamoto fled North and Yoritomo married a Hojo [family name] woman; the two set up HQ @ Kamakura and gained power through local estates o In 1180 Yoritomo challenges the Taira to appoint managers of local estates and succeeds in his challenge > other local lords see that Yoritomo has power and begin ignoring the Emperor  The entire Minamoto branch swears allegiance to Yoritomo  Together they take over the capital and drive out the Taira o In 1185 Yoshitsune eliminates all Taira  Kamakura Period 1185 – 1333 o Yoritomo establishes himself in the city of Kamakura as the first shogun  Shogun = military leader o Rewards his followers with titles and expansive lands of the former nobles o Feudalism really picks up at this time. Feudalism = primary basis of government is ties between a lord and his vassal – no large scale government really and heavily male oriented  Samurai rise o In 1199 Yoritomo dies leaving two sons ages 11 and 17 to inherit the position of shogun  His sons are killed in a power struggle and Yoritomo’s Hojo wife and father-in-law seize power o Infant Fujiwara is appointed as shogun and the Hojo family takes power of the seat o Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281  The Mongols had invaded China and Korea, they demanded Japan’s surrender. Japan said no.  The first invasion fleet the Mongols sent was destroyed in a typhoon in 1274  The second invasion fleet landed in Japan and fought with the Japanese for 7 weeks before they were again destroyed in a typhoon  This gave rise to the belief that Japan was sacred and protected by a “divine wind” or kami-kaze o Emperor Go-Daigo comes into power now and believes he should be able to actually run the country because he’s the emperor.  Refused to resign in 1331 despite heavy pressure  Ashikaga Takauji is a samurai that is sent to kill or otherwise dethrone Go-Daigo  He ends up siding with Go-Daigo  Nitta Yoshisada, another samurai, then marches on Kamakura  Takauji defeats Nitta and Go-Daigo flees South, not trusting Takauji  Takauji becomes shogun in 1338 and appoints a new emperor – now there are two people claiming to be emperor  In 1392 it is decided that the two branches will alternate who sits on the throne o There is another loss of power in nobility  The manger position becomes hereditary, the shogun no longer appoints new families to be managers or local lords  The nobility become impoverished due to lack of income o Nevertheless, economic, commerce and technological advance take place at this time  Warring States 1467 – 1568 o Onin War = first war from 1467 – 1468  Ashikaga branch fighting over who is shogun results in nobody being shogun – civil wars o Daimyo are the only form of government  Daimyo = lord, king – controls a certain area and hires samurai to protect it  Peasants become the foot soldiers o Europeans arrive in 1543  The Portuguese bring guns and Christianity  St. Francis Xavier begins converting the Japanese through the daimyo. If a daimyo converts, everybody under him converts. By 1614 300,00 Japanese had converted  National Unification 1568 – 1600 o “Three Great Unifiers” helped bring Japan back together as a nation  Oda Nabunaga: daimyo East of Kyoto (1534 – 1582)  Used weapons to take over central Japan  1568 took over Kyoto and heavily encourage trade between provinces  Toyotomi Hideyoshi: Oda’s greatest general (1542 – 1598)  Married his sister to Tokugawa Ieyasu  In 1590 all daimyo swore allegiance to him  Became the Imperial Chancellor  He reorganized the tax system, disarmed the peasants, and created a cast system  Cast system: 1. Samurai 2. Farmers 3. Artisans 4. Merchants  Invaded Korea in 1592


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