Week 1 Lecture Notes
Week 1 Lecture Notes HUM 3122-03
Popular in Japan (Honors)
Popular in Humanities
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jane Sible on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 3122-03 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Cynthia Dunn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Japan (Honors) in Humanities at University of Northern Iowa.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
August 24, 2016 History of Japan Physical characteristics: o the nation of Japan is smaller than California but larger than Great Britain o in latitudes it is similar to the East Coast of the U.S. o it is an island nation so it has been isolated from the rest of the world and has only been occupied once o at .37 million km there are 341 persons per square km making the population of Japan 126 million people Ainu = indigenous inhabitants of Japan were actually Caucasian o Were moved to the island Hokkaido and were treated similarly to how the U.S. treated Native American o The Japanese we think of today are probably descended from people of Korea who moved to Japan when there was a land bridge between the two - Japan keeps track of time based primarily on different Periods, often named after a place or the emperor of the beginning, or a family who was constantly in power Jomon Period 11,000 – 300 B.C.E. o The people were mainly hunter-gatherers and there is evidence of pottery made at this time Yayoi Period 300 B.C.E. – 250 C.E. o Wheel thrown pottery is dated around this time, agriculture made an appearance in irrigated rice fields, and metal work in bronze and iron began Tomb Period 250 – 552 C.E. o The tomb period is so titled based on the first appearances of actual nice tombs o People were divided into two classes at this time, the Uji and the Be Uji = the warriors and ruling class Be = the commoners who were assigned to a certain Uji to serve o Animism = belief in multiple gods and spirits, such as the spirit of the rock and of the tree [I think Pocahontas] also came around at this time Kami = the name for the gods and spirits Shinto = “Way of the gods” AKA the name for this religion th th In the 6 – 9 centuries Chinese Influences came into play (Japan was not conquered but willingly adopted the new culture) o Yamato clan becomes the ruling family o Chinese writing is now used o Buddhism from the West is introduced and causes NO conflicts with the Shinto faith o In 702 the Taiho Law Code was written – this was the first written legal code for Japan It claimed all the land of Japan as belonging to the Emperor, He gave the land to families to farm Different families were supposed to get land every 5 years Taxes were paid so that the people could farm on the land, the nobles were exempt from taxes o In 710 the city of Nara was made the capital Nara Period 710 – 794 o First two histories of Japan were written at this time – they were mainly myth and legend Kojiki in 712 Names of Nihon Shoki in 720 the histories o The first poetry collection was written at this time as well: Manyoshu o In 794 the capital moved to Heiankyo (modern-day Kyoto) Heian Period 794 – 1185 [smaller periods inside of the Heian Period called the Fujiwara Period (858 – 1160) and Taira period (1160 – 1185) based on the family in power] o The Fujiwara Period is so named because the Fujiwara family came into power by marrying into the Imperial line – Fujiwara Yoshifusa was the first member to control the Emperor, he was Regent to the Counselor o The Tale of Genji written in 1008 was the first novel from Japan by Lady Murasaki. It told of court life and the exploits young Genji got into o A shift in power gave the provinces more individual power instead of the court. The commoners would give their land to the nearby nobles and pay the nobles rent to farm it so that they wouldn’t have to pay the more expensive taxes. Managers of local estates gained power because the nobles were away at court and left these managers in charge. Development of local military forces on the Eastern frontier because the capital wouldn’t protect them. o War between the Taira and Minamoto clans resulted in the Taira Period from 1160–1185 At the end of the Fujiwara Period, the two clans were fighting for power August 26, 2016 History Cont. Taira Kiyomori defeated the Minamoto clan and took control of the capital thus beginning the Taira Period (1160 – 1185) o Daughter of Kiyomori married the Emperor that Kiyomori himself put on the throne o Kiyomori did not extend control beyond the capital or try to conquer any new lands o Fatal flaw – left a Minamoto alive = Minamoto Yoritomo and brother Yoshitsune The Minamoto fled North and Yoritomo married a Hojo [family name] woman; the two set up HQ @ Kamakura and gained power through local estates o In 1180 Yoritomo challenges the Taira to appoint managers of local estates and succeeds in his challenge > other local lords see that Yoritomo has power and begin ignoring the Emperor The entire Minamoto branch swears allegiance to Yoritomo Together they take over the capital and drive out the Taira o In 1185 Yoshitsune eliminates all Taira Kamakura Period 1185 – 1333 o Yoritomo establishes himself in the city of Kamakura as the first shogun Shogun = military leader o Rewards his followers with titles and expansive lands of the former nobles o Feudalism really picks up at this time. Feudalism = primary basis of government is ties between a lord and his vassal – no large scale government really and heavily male oriented Samurai rise o In 1199 Yoritomo dies leaving two sons ages 11 and 17 to inherit the position of shogun His sons are killed in a power struggle and Yoritomo’s Hojo wife and father-in-law seize power o Infant Fujiwara is appointed as shogun and the Hojo family takes power of the seat o Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 The Mongols had invaded China and Korea, they demanded Japan’s surrender. Japan said no. The first invasion fleet the Mongols sent was destroyed in a typhoon in 1274 The second invasion fleet landed in Japan and fought with the Japanese for 7 weeks before they were again destroyed in a typhoon This gave rise to the belief that Japan was sacred and protected by a “divine wind” or kami-kaze o Emperor Go-Daigo comes into power now and believes he should be able to actually run the country because he’s the emperor. Refused to resign in 1331 despite heavy pressure Ashikaga Takauji is a samurai that is sent to kill or otherwise dethrone Go-Daigo He ends up siding with Go-Daigo Nitta Yoshisada, another samurai, then marches on Kamakura Takauji defeats Nitta and Go-Daigo flees South, not trusting Takauji Takauji becomes shogun in 1338 and appoints a new emperor – now there are two people claiming to be emperor In 1392 it is decided that the two branches will alternate who sits on the throne o There is another loss of power in nobility The manger position becomes hereditary, the shogun no longer appoints new families to be managers or local lords The nobility become impoverished due to lack of income o Nevertheless, economic, commerce and technological advance take place at this time Warring States 1467 – 1568 o Onin War = first war from 1467 – 1468 Ashikaga branch fighting over who is shogun results in nobody being shogun – civil wars o Daimyo are the only form of government Daimyo = lord, king – controls a certain area and hires samurai to protect it Peasants become the foot soldiers o Europeans arrive in 1543 The Portuguese bring guns and Christianity St. Francis Xavier begins converting the Japanese through the daimyo. If a daimyo converts, everybody under him converts. By 1614 300,00 Japanese had converted National Unification 1568 – 1600 o “Three Great Unifiers” helped bring Japan back together as a nation Oda Nabunaga: daimyo East of Kyoto (1534 – 1582) Used weapons to take over central Japan 1568 took over Kyoto and heavily encourage trade between provinces Toyotomi Hideyoshi: Oda’s greatest general (1542 – 1598) Married his sister to Tokugawa Ieyasu In 1590 all daimyo swore allegiance to him Became the Imperial Chancellor He reorganized the tax system, disarmed the peasants, and created a cast system Cast system: 1. Samurai 2. Farmers 3. Artisans 4. Merchants Invaded Korea in 1592
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