Week 2 BIO 301-01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by carr34 Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 301-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Robert H. Stavn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Principles of Ecology in Biology at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Energy and Energetics Food chains Charles Elton 1920s Spitz began polar bears and foxes (stayed away from polar bears and studied foxes) (nitrogen “food”, recycled)seasonal birds “Pyramid of Numbers”- small → large Numbers decreased, but size or organisms increased Lindemon and Hutchinson (1940s) Food = calories flow one way ● Plants big and common ● Herbivores big and common ● Carnivores big or common Thermodynamics ● 1st NRG(energy) cannot be created or destroyed ● 2nd conversions not efficient Concentrated (useable) → Disposed (unuseable)[entropy] All energy can be turned into heat Ecosystem and energetic ● Calorie counting ● Biomass energy ● Standing crop [Energy Flow] Only get when loaded with nutrients Home range(increase size → increase home range), size, energetics Inverse pyramid of habitat Optimal Foraging Theory Natural selection maximum energy Energy flow: ● Plants → abundant, gets energy from where it stands ● Animals → less abundant, “Tax” on plants, large animals have to be rare ● Humans → large density Large prey larger energy and hard to catch Small prey lower energy and easy to catch Light + Geometry of trees Average leaf diameter → 5cm Light particles (proton) + wave models (electromagnetic radiation) Irregular leaves: ● Top of tree; leaves open a lot of space, light goes around the leaves. [ leaves that are rigid] ● Bottom of the tree; use all of the dim light avaliable; takes up the most space; less light at bottom. [ leaves that have no rigids] Energy efficiency and Animals Community energetics: gross production= net production (of tissue or biomass) + respiration Ecological efficiency energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next All animals require large supply of food energy. Food → fitness efficiency→ carnivore- low (have to hunt for food rapidly) → herbivore- high (finds food quickly and easy)