Emerging and Adolescence in Emerging Adulthood Week 4
Emerging and Adolescence in Emerging Adulthood Week 4 HDFS 311
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Vigil on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 311 at Colorado State University taught by Rotner, Jaime Marie in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Week 4: Social cognition is the term used to describe the way we think about other people, social relationships and social institutions Perspective taking o The ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others. o Selmans Research Theory describing how perspective taking develops through a series of stages Egocentrism of childhood mature perspective taking in adolescences Adolescences egocentrism o Having difficulty distinguishing your own thinking about yourself from their thinking about the thoughts of others o Elkinds research o Imaginary Audience Belief that others are acutely aware of and attentive to one’s appearance and behavior o Personal Fable Belief that there must be something special, something unique about you- otherwise why would other be so preoccupied with you? o Optimistic Bias The tendency to assume that accidents, diseases and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves Adolescents tend to have a stronger optimistic bias than adults Example: Smoking Rumination- “I can’t believe I said that in class” and you run that through your head over and over again Chapter 5 Gender o Refers to the social categories of male and female that we are given at birth Sex o Refers to the biological status of being male or female Traditional Cultures o Girl to Women Girls typically work alongside their moms from an early age of 6 or 7 Girls maintain a close relationship with their moms and staying close to home “the world contracts for girls” Narrow socialization because budding sexuality is more likely to be tightly restricted. o Boys to Men Boys typically have less contact with their families and more contact with peers “World expands for boys” Protect, provide, procreate Boys enjoy new privileges reserved for men Manhood is something that has to be achieved Gender in American History o Girl to Women 18 & 19 century, women were not encouraged to work. If you had to work, they had constricted occupational roles Seen as fragile and innocent Biologically less capable of intellectual work o Using the brain to much would draw blood away from the reproductive system so it was negative Incapable of strenuous work Virginity until marriage was essential Focus on physical appearance o Three Manhood Transformations th Communal Manhood (17 & 18 Centuries) Focus on preparing to assume role responsibilities in work and marriage Self-made manhood (19 century) Males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emething adulthoods Passionate Manhood (20 century) Self-expression and self-enjoyment replaced self-control and self-denial as the paramount virtues. o Gender Intensification Hypothesis Psychological and behavioral difference between genders become more pronounced at adolescence. Intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed roles increases o Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems Stress on physical appearance for girls can cause Negative body image Dieting Eating disorders Target of ridicule if they are overweight Emphasis on aggression in the male role may make some boys target of insults and humiliation Can contribute to problem behaviors such as vandalisms, risky driving, fighting and crime. Cognitive development theory of Gender Gender is a fundamental way of organizing ideas about the world o Age 3-5 Understand themselves as being either male or female Identify things as appropriate for either males or females “Self-socialization” o Age 6-10 Perceptions of gender become less rigid o Age 12-16 Perceptions of gender become more rigid Gender intensification o As adolescences become more capable of reflecting on these issues, they become more concerned with compliance to gender norms for themselves and others. Androgyny o The term used for the combination of masculine and feminine traits in one person o Advocates points to research that shows Androgynous children are more flexible and creative than other children. Women and men also have higher emotional intelligence Highly feminine women have fighter anxiety and lower self- esteem Advocates have argued that being androgynous provides greater repertoire of traits to draw on in their daily lives o Gender roles in American Minority Groups African American Women Female roles contain a variety of characteristics due to challenging historical circumstances o Self-reliance o Assertiveness o Perseverance Have higher self-esteem and are less concerned with physical appearance African American Men Have been frequently subjected to insults to their manhood also due to historical circumstances Economics conditions in many American cities make it difficult to fill the traditional “provider” aspect of the male role Young black men may adopt extreme characteristics of the male role in order to declare masculinity Alternative ideas of manhood have recently been provided.
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