Lee Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Saturday March 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/28/15
32315 Figure 328 Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSUrRNA Diagram you need to know from the test Figure 3325a Freeliving nematode Lonh0phorates several phyla Bryozoans lampshells brachiopods bilateral coelomate protostome Figure 3314 L0ph0phorates Bryozoan left brachionod right Phylum MOIIUS Clams snails squids foot visceral mass gills mantle 3 main body parts bilateral coelomate protostome complete digestive system flow through digestive system Table 333 Major Classes of Phylum Mollus Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Figure 3316 Basic body plan of mollusks all have a shell too the shell was protection and made out of the same thing as cement which means they could come on land too Mollusca Euspira lewisii Moon snail one of the largest to be found intertidally in the Northwest It does not usually stay inside the shell long because it cannot breathe It crawls across sandflats and mudflats with its huge foot partly extended in front of the shell like a snow plow pushing through the sediments in search of clams KNOW DEFINITION OF EACH OF THE DIFFERENT PHYLUM Figure 3318 The resui of torsion in a gastronod could come on land too the problem was gravity and that they could dry out the shell that was mainly evolved for protection it was also a way to deal with gravity and the problem of drying out land snails looks just like an underwater marine snail except the shell is more centered over the body mass the unfortunate part of that is you are pooping on your own head makes cement in this case the mantle making the shell you get this invagination of the mantle thats forming a modified lungs Phylum Mollusca Class Bivalvia take things like the foot mantle the gills and modify them for different purposes in this phylum you have things that move on land sedentary things etc Figure 3321 Anatomy of a clam this thing doesn t move very much generally they are like sponges Freshwater mussel Lampsilis reevesiana Breathe with mantle so it has a stipend and using it as a snorkel This way you can still filter particles and get fresh water to breathe Clam shell like thing that made a mantel look like a fish It makes a swimming motion it sticks out of the shell iClicker Why does the mussel lampsiis have a modified mantle that resembles a fish A attract real fishes that try to eat the fake fish B blend in with the environment C it gives them the ability to swim D identity crisis There are babies in the mussel39s shell When the fish try to eat the fake fish the babies are injected into the fishes mouth and the fish is the new baby momma The fish comes up to the fake fish and when it opens its mouth it squirts the larvae into the fishes face and the larvae hook on and get into the fishes gills Snuffbox mussel Epioblasma triquetra and logperch host Phylum Mollusca Class Cephalopoda Humboldt squid A nasty apex predator Animal is the bilateral body plant modified to match the function it needs to do in life Architeuthis dux Vampyroteuthis infernalis Vampire squid from hell httpwwwyoutubecomwatc hvS3CJKKSUpg No ink production produces bioluminescent mucus cloud Black surface Lives in the oxygen minimum zone Hawaiian bobtail squid Houses bioluminescent Vibrio bacteria in a crypt Uses the light for counterillumination when they hunt at night There is a reflector and lens as part of the light organ Phylum Annelida Segmented worms bilateral coelomate protostome Figure 3323 Anatomy of an earthworm Giant palouse earthworm Driloleirus americanus The white lily scented denizen of the region s fertile deep soils reportedly can grow to 3 feet long Thought to be extinct Specimen found by Ul researcher in 2006 Table 334 Classes of Phylum Annelida Phylum Arthronoda Crustaceans insects spiders segmented body jointed appendages exoskeleton bilateral coelomate protostome problem with molting and having to change shells but besides that they are invincible You can have some speed and armor They are very abundant They also have jointed appendages We also have those joints and fingers These also have something similar to that but the skeleton is on the outside They could also text if they had big enough brains Figure 3326 External anatomy of an arthrobod Interesting arthronods Pistol shrimp lsopods Look like pillbugs normally small Mantisshrimo Stomatonods Second leg is a spear or club special hard chitin Mantis shrimp isn t just beautiful has specialized claw that has super fast musculature and it thrusts it out Either has a spear or a club It clubs into the clams body armor Figure 3330b Spider anatomy Figure 3333 Anatomy of a grasshonloer an insect Bilateral Deuterostomes Figure 327 A comparison of early develobment in protostomes and deuterostomes Phylum Echinodermata Starfish sea urchins Endoskeleton water vascular system tube feet pedicellaria spines regeneration capability bilateral coelomate deuterostome Figure 3338 Anatomy of a sea star Echinodermata starfish Pycnopodia helianthoides Sunflower star Voracious predator httpwwwyoutu becomwatchv TysOw3CgApQ httpwwwyoutu becomwatchv ALaMoSvaE Echinodermai urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Red sea urchin eats kelps jaw like structure these urchins live over 100 years and found some near Vancouver Island that may be 200 years old A prime food for sea otters httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvMXQF7dhVDSYampfeaturereated httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvb44bxr07w Echinoderms Sea cucumber radial symmetry forms cylinder shape Phylum Chorda Lancelets tunicates vertebrates notochord nerve cord bilateral coelomate deuterostome gure 342 Chordate characteristics Figure 344a Subphylum Cephalochordata lancelet mtomy Figure 343 Subphylum Urochordata a tunicate Table 337 Animal phyla 32515 Animal Nutrition 1 Some of the best known and fascinating adaptations of animals involve their feeding and digestion Animal diversity of feeding strategies and digestive physiology Filterfeeders predators Digestive systems no true tissues and organs gastrovascular cavity true digestive system alimentary canal Simple Intracellular Digestion Example paramecium Food taken up into food vacuoles where enzymatic and chemical digestion occurs Figure 333 Anatomy of a sponge Intracellular digestion by phagocytos in choanocyte Extracellular digestion A outside organism B gastrovascular cavities C alimentary canal Secrete digestive enzymes onto food source Absorb nutrients Best known in fungi and bacteria some higher animals Gastrovascular cavity Hydra extracellular digestion increased surface area disadvantage Gastrovascular cavity vs Alimentary Canal Alimentary canal a simple view ic parts of alimentary canal mouth mechanical digestion storage absorption anus Alimentary canal mammalian Mouth Mechanical Enzymatic Salivary amylase Digests starch Food formed into bolus Moistened and dissolving with saliva Peristaltic contraction to stomach Stomach Muscular organ approx 1 liter capacity esophageal sphincter pyloric sphincter rugae ridges Digestive Mechanisms in Stomach Mechanical Chemical enzymatic Mechanical Mixing and churning Digestive Mechanisms Mechanical mixing and churning Chemical pH around 2 Also breaks food down Enzymatic Pepsin protease breaks down protein Absorption low surface area water small molecules such as ethanol aspirin TEST Why doesn t pepsin digest in the stomach Mucus helps you The inside has hydrochloric acid One enzyme can break down a lot of things a second They produce something close to pepsin Activation of pepsin chief cells pepsinogen inactive so totally a test question produce pepsinogen and once you take that off its active When its secreted it s inactive two different types of cells Chief and parietal In a healthy person digestion is happening in the stomach not on the walls Once you get the pepsin started from pepsinogen it will self activate parietal cells HCI test question produce HCI protons everything s moving out iClicker Infection of stomach mucosa by Helicobacter pylori causes parietal cells to produce excess HCL this results in A pepsinogen that is never activated B Stomach pH rise to pH 12 C Self digestion and gastric ulcers 32715 Small intestine Most of the enzymatic digestion occurs here Acid neutralized Starch protein lipids digested Why doesn t the small intestine digest itself Like pepsin but is not active Trypsinogen gt trypsin Procarboxypeptidase gt carboxypeptidase Chymotrypsinogen gt chymotrypsin Once activated they can start digesting Interesting in biology often times you turn something on you get a chain reaction and everything starts happening like microwave popcorn when the membrane bound enteropeptidase activates trypsinogen it makes trypsin Trypsin then activates everything else Most nutrient absorption takes place in small intestine Structure another example of increasing surface area Structure of the Small Intestine Microvilli Large intestine colon Major function is to reabsorb water Rich in symbiotic bacteria Bacteria digest cellulose Some symbiotic bacteria produce vitamin K Variations of vertebrate digestive system Herbivorous mammals Specialized fermentation chambers Cecum or multichambered stomachs Are there ways to figure out what animals eat without observing them in nature Natural trace materials are stored in an animal and can tell you its history and what it ate Pollutants metals Stable isotopes of C and N Accumulation of substances in the food chain PCBs mercury DDT Stable isotobes of N and C You are what you eat plus a little bit of 15M and 13C Higher 15N higher in the food chain 13C tells you what is at the base of the food chain C4 plants like corn have more 13C Hair stable isotope data UK uses more C3 grain than US we use corn Stable isotobes suggest that the gladiators may have been vegans Delta 15N values were low wting vegan diet and consumption of legumes Variations on the vertebrate digestive system Pythons big infrequent meals of meat and bone Herbivores eating plant cellulose Python incredible ups and downs of digestion Capable of ingesting prey over 12 of its body weight monthly Between meals no digestive enzymes or stomach acid is produced intestine villi are shrunken heart mass shrinks After swallowing prey rapid body changes increase digestive enzymes acid intestine heart and other organs increase in size 44 fold increase in metabolism Transmission electron micrographs illustrating the rapid postprandial lengthening of the python39s intestinal microvilli reaching a peak in length at 3 days post feeding Images of the small intestine of similarsized Burmese pythons fasted and at 2 and 10 days post feeding DPF Variations of vertebrate digestive system Herbivorous mammals Specialized fermentation chambers Cecum or multichambered stomachs Coyote vs Koala Carnivore vs Herbivore Koala has a huge swirl cecum between small and large intestine and longer large intestine Koala specialized to eat on eucalyptus trees Cecum is really long and big and the coyote has small little hump Why does herbivory require specializations Plant tissue not like meat Meat has high calories Harder to break up Contains cellulose Nutrients less concentrated than meat Cellulose also called dietary fiber Cellulose and chitin are the most abundant polymers on earth Structure of cellulose plant cell wall 100 s to 1000 s of glucose units around 3050 of plant dry weight Some protis and bacteria can break down cellulose Enzyme is cellulase generally not produced by anything but produce and bacteria Cellulose degradation is slow and generally requires anaerobic zero oxygen conditions Scientists are interested in cellulose breakdown for biofuel purposes iClicker Which of the following would be a good characteristic of a fermentation chamber like the cecum A Cellulose spends a long time in chamber so it has time to be digested B Rich supply of blood vessels so that the organ and cellulose are always oxygenated C Internal conditions that will kill bacteria and protists Cecum Allows breakdown of cellulose in herbivores One opening and exit lower oxygen slower passage Digested cellulose must be reintroduced to digestive system Horse Cecum Ruminant Digestion Ruminant 4 chambered stomach First two chambers where symbiotic bacteria and protists break down cellulose Cow rechews food 3rd chamber where water is absorbed 4th chamber further digestion by cow s enzymes Mutation of lysozyme bacteria degrading enzyme high amounts of pepsin and HCI resistant form secreted in stomach
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