History of Race and Ethnicity lecture notes up to 9/16
History of Race and Ethnicity lecture notes up to 9/16 AMH
Popular in Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
Popular in History
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Ralph on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH at Florida State University taught by Pamella Robbins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Up to September 8th, 2016 The following should be easy to differentiate but the people who fit multiple molds or don’t fit any molds are then left out of a sector Race Race: Each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics. Government defines for you often based on physical attributes o Most people that we call “black” are only 1/6 African American Links exterior characteristics with inferiority or internal character Cultural construction/ historical invention o In UK there was no “white” because everyone was white so it didn’t need to be defined System to divide population Ethnicity Ethnicity: group of people who have something in common o Culture, language, where they’re from etc. “Ethnic group” people you feel most comfortable with o People who practice Judaism Jews but might not be from Israel we don’t define our ethnicity, the government does Nativism: disliking someone based on ethnic group o Different from racism Based on color Nationality Nationality: where you were born o Government skewed to where you hold citizenship Nationality vs. citizenship o Nationality- where you were born o Citizenship- where you hold rights Multiple citizenship can make it difficult to distinguish what nationality is What does US do with this info Racial/ethnic hierarchy o Naturally grew in US o People in power on top, people with less power on bottom WASP on top “other” on bottom “other” anyone not WASP Complete opposites across board Different levels on “ladder” based on similarities o Increased power more money o Levels change, groups move up and down the ladder o Once a difference is recognized in a person, they became apart of the “the other” Jews in WW2, slaves degraded to animals History of Immigration Waves of Immigration 4 waves o 1. Formative wave colonization 1607-1830 Colonizing force that writes all rules because “they were first” o 2. First wave 1830-1880 millions of people Irish, German, Chinese Called first because formative didn’t believe they were immigrants First group of “others” o 3. Second wave 1880-1920 ellis island hungary, Poland, Greece. Russia, japan, ends in 1921 with 1sr immigration laws o 4. Third wave 1965-now liberal immigration Why do immigrants leave their home o push factors- drives them out of home persecution, recession, war, dictatorship why do immigrants come here o pull factors – what makes immigrants come here religious freedom, better life, money, education, because we let them Process of Emigration 1. Decision to leave or not to leave o Factors: Propaganda literature Ads in newspapers Travel accounts “American letters” Power of returned immigrant o Anti-immigration factors Upper class sue of clergy and journalists Families “American letters” 2. Traveling to the port city 3. Taking temporary residence in port city 3. Crossing the ocean 4. Taking temporary or permanent residence in port city 5. Fitting into American society September 13, 2016 Key Points How immigrants fit in Assimilation: process of giving up your culture completely and adopting new culture o Would entail: learning the language, familiarizing self with new culture, potentially changing your religion etc. o We want immigrants to conform to our society Anglo- conformity America was pro-protestant and anti-Catholic o Xenophobia: fear of “the other” Act upon fear, don’t act upon dislike (nativism) The Process of assimilation o Do most immigrants assimilate? o It is difficult to completely give up yourself very long process o Major factors Age Easier to assimilate children because they aren’t as attached to their culture A 60 year old may never assimilate Surrounding self with Americans Pick up on traits Education Coming from a country more like ours o Agreed that most immigrants don’t assimilate, rather they acculturate Acculturate: assimilate enough to fit in enough Pretending to fit in to avoid ramifications Know that America wants to assimilate and that they might be better off if they assimilate Historically America does not want this Starting in 1960s we adopted cultural pluralism: we like that we have different people in America “Un-assimilate-able” o Those who physically cannot assimilate o Anglo-conformity wants WASP Someone who is not white cannot achieve this America wants assimilation, immigrants acculturation The Formative Wave The English Ethnicity and nationality: English Not a homogenous group a. Melting pot: all the cultures came together and formed new culture (England) i. Anglos, Saxons, Celts, pacts, Britons, Normans, romans, Vikings b. Salad bowl: all the culture come together and keep their cultures (US) Factors Leading to Immigration of the English Economics o Lower class Doesn’t have money at home so they want to immigrant but they cant pay for the trip indentured servants Contract themselves for series of years to promise to work for an American to pay their passage over In England, the class you were born into was the class you would stay in No “working yourself up” in England o Upper-class determined by family lines o Upper-class Composed of only those who were born into royalty but when the king dies, only the first born son will receive land/money Want to maintain the lifestyle they had in England Pay for the indentured servants to come with them o No middle class o Gentleman: someone who does not work with their hands Religious o Formative protestants Pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers (society of friends) Pilgrims-Anglican church is too catholic Puritans-wanted to purify church of England, needed reform Quakers-equality for all people Hated in England Involuntary migration from England (not slaves) o Convicts England trying to clean up their jails o Kidnapped Women, children, elderly English settlers form 1 permanent settlement in Jamestown 1607 Ideas on Immigration and Naturalization (Citizenship) 3 different models (all still prevalent today) o 1. “Pro-immigration” or Virginia Model Wants labor our of immigrants Will not give equal rights Indentured servants slaves o 2. “Exclude all but those like us” or Massachusetts Model Anglo-conformity x10 Puritans and pilgrims Come in as long as you are just like us o Burned those who were different o Deported to different colony Letters of recommendation from your preacher o 3. “Pluralism” or Pennsylvania Celebrates differences Quakers formed Nativism and Xenophobia in Formative Wave o Nativism: dislike person based on where they’re from o Xenophobia: fear of immigrants o Aliens: immigrants Green card literally says Alien on it Immigration and the Formation of the United States of America 1776- evolving idea of who could have membership in the American Polity o Voting rights Article 1, Section 8 of the US constitution (Naturalization Act of 1790) o Naturalization: becoming a citizen Congress has authority to create “uniform rule of naturalization” 3 positions No limits Period of assimilation Restriction Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 o Series of acts that tell people who are not citizens what they can or cannot do o Right after the constitution was passed o “Dangerous” Deportation you can never come back ever o “Power to restrain or remove alien enemies in case of war” o “False, scandalous and malicious writing against the US or the president” Public expression of hatred Freedom of speech confusion After the Wave Inventions of the “white race” around 1619 “WASP” White Anglo Saxon Protestant (male) o After 1790, majority of the population was not WASP o How do they keep power? Change in definition of “White” to pull more people into the category of white so they remain majority Dutch, German, French, Scandinavian, Scottish, Swiss, Irish, Welsh (white protestants) Later, Irish, Italian, Greek, Russian etc. 2010 census: “white Hispanic” September 15, 2016 Forced Movement of Africans Definition of Forced Migration Have no say in the migration o Kidnapped women, convicts, Africans Africans are first “Racial” immigration o WASPS feel they can force them to migrate because they are “other” based on race Formative wave o First slave came over on the ship with Christopher Columbus o First slaves in America came in 1619 As much apart of the formative wave as any other individual European “Discovery” of Africa 15h century- Portuguese move into the West African Kingdoms o Huge kingdoms that could’ve rivaled any European power 1 kingdom of Africa is the size of all of western USA Timbuktu largest city in the world, occupied by the Mali Richest person of all time (Forbes Magazine) – King of Mali CLASS SYSTEM, NOT CASTE SYSTEM o Set up like US and European government King, Queen, congress-type set up, upper class and lower class, capitalist economy Major religions: Islam, Christianity and Judaism They were much more like us than we portray in history Trans-Saharan trade o Traders: wanting to give others what they want for a return Spoke many languages very educated, civilized groups o Starts the slave trade because slaves were already available in Africa Was more of a class system—those who were “down on luck” would be slaves (make money and then buy themselves out of slavery), no one was born into slavery, was not based on skin color, were treated like people African “slaves” were more like indentured servants in US No sense of ownership between slave and “master” o Cairo-China silk road o Tunis Mediterranean trade o Africans had been working with other countries and continents for centuries were not “discovered” Portuguese were trying to get to India and instead find the west African kingdoms o Begin trading o See slavery for the first time No sense of servitude yet because there was no need for it until the discovery of “the new world” 16 century- discovery of new world by Columbus o Agricultural workers needed to grow sugar Enslave Indians Indians experience 70-80% death rate o Called “Indians” because Columbus thought he was in India Began the systematic kidnapping and enslaving of Africans Christian values made the Europeans look for a sense of justification to enslave people o Make them “not people” by taking away their power, removing education, exploit fear and emphasis differences skin color Why Enslavement? Create “the other” by focusing on stereotypes o Stereotypes justification of enslavement “Black”—did not really describe their skin color, was used for what the color black represented Devil (historically black), death, absence of light, dirty, What does white mean? Pure, good, clean, god “Savage”—lack of civilization We knew they had a civilization, but we didn’t understand it, easier to justify enslavement of someone who doesn’t have a civilization White mans burden: we are giving them civilization “Animality”— Africans are animals, not humans Not a universal stereotype Most other countries do not believe in this How to understand/think of this: o Missing link in Darwinism (how we went from Ape to human) o In between animal and human God put animals on earth to serve humans god put Africans on earth to serve us Resistance from Africans, Europeans, Quakers etc. The Atlantic Slave Trade “Triangle trade”—makes triangle across Atlantic ocean o Route A: start somewhere in Europe with “finished goods” Exchange in West Africa for other goods and kidnapping millions of Africans o Route B: middle passage—West Africa to New World Slaves are exchanged for “unfinished goods” or raw materials o Route C: back to Europe Raw goods finished goods o PROCESS REPEATS ITSELF OVER AND OVER AGAIN Economic process o Put in as little as they can to get the most money out Who, what, where, when o When did it take place Beings: 1450 with first slaves going to Europe Ends when last country (Brazil) outlaws slave trade in 1888 o Who participated Every country Individuals from all classes Even west Africans involved wanting better life o What (type of slave) Kidnapped slaves were most common Being taken against their will Most wanted slave: male adults (18-24 years old) 75% of slaves are male Why males? Farming (men in Europe farm but women in African farm) Over the age of 35: elderly o Where did it happen Europe West Africa New World Death rates o A dead slave is not worth anything but obtaining the slaves are free so they really are disposable o Taxes and insurance for slaves If the salve dies, you get money back o On middle passage: 25% death rate 50 million kidnapped 20 million made it to the US