Art History Week 5
Art History Week 5 ARTH 173
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 173 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Aurelia D'Antonio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Western Art History in Arts and Humanities at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Art History Lecture 9 September 12, 2016 Left: Rosso Fiorentino, The Descent from the Cross. 1521 Right: Jacopo da Pontormo, Pietà, ca. 1526-28, Santa Felicità, Florence • Mannerism: Exaggerated colors, positions, etc. • The Descent from the Cross ◦ Flagellating committee commissioned ◦ Extremely exaggerated • Pieta ◦ Commissioned for Caponi Chapel, dedicated to the Pieta ◦ Removed perception of where they are ◦ Recognize the characters but not the location, space less scene ◦ Pontormo’s self portrait in middle far right Left: Michelangelo, New Sacristy, San Lorenzo, Florence. 1519 -34 Right: Brunelleschi, Old Sacristy, San Lorenzo, Florence. c. 1418 -28 • New Sacristy ◦ Michelangelo worked on it for 15 years for the Medici ◦ Used “serene stone,” used more marble than Old Sacristy • More visually dynamic ◦ Taller structure ◦ Fake doorways, blind niches Left: Brunelleschi, Old Sacristy Right: Michelangelo, New Sacristy • Old dome: ribbed on inside of dome • New dome: Coffers 2 Left: Michelangelo, tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici, 1524-34. Marble. New Sacristy, San Lorenzo, Florence Right: Michelangelo, tomb of Lorenzo de’ Medici, 1521-34. Marble, New Sacristy, San Lorenzo, Florence • Fathers and sons entombed • Statues of Giuliano and Lorenzo sitting over tomb ◦ Idealized images 3 Giorgio Vasari, courtyard of the Uffizi, Florence, begun 1559 • Designed to be offices • Left some older building standing • Not ornamental, sober and severe composition Michelangelo, Laurentian Library Reading Room, 1523 -29. San Lorenzo, Florence • Commissioned as a library for Medici books and manuscripts 4 • Desks held the books • Well lit with windows and no columns Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, initially designed by Michelangelo, 1524-34, completed by Bartolomeo Ammanati, 1559. San Lorenzo, Florence • New take on classical forms ◦ Scrolls used as banister ◦ Pediments taper ◦ Pediment over doorway is split ◦ Columns set inside wall 5 Bartolomeo Ammanati, Courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 1558 -70 • Doric, Ionic and Corinthian capitals trapped inside intense rustication ◦ Creates fortress like feeling th Boboli Gardens, 16 century • Early Romantic style 6 Left: Agnolo Bronzino, Eleonora di Toledo and Her Son, Giovanni, c. 1545 Right: Agnolo Bronzino, Allegory, c. 1545 • Both by Bronzino ◦ Allegory ▪ Cupid grabbing breast of mother Venus ▪ Anguish of love figure in middle left (syphilis) ▪ Father Time holding up scene in top right ▪ Bronzino’s own invention/idea 7 Art History Lecture 10 September 14, 2016 Michelangelo, The Last Judgment, 1534-41. Fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City • Reanimated bodies rising from the ground • Christ as the center ◦ Ambiguous pose (can see stigmata and wounds in side) • Left side: damned • Legend that flayed skin of St. Bartholomew on cloud is Michelangelo’s self portrait Michelangelo, Pietà, c. 1547-55 • 4 figures from 1 block of marble • Meditation on the meaning of Christ’s death ◦ Why we are saved • Virgin is hidden behind Christ’s body (unlike first Pietà) Campidolio • Constructed Piazza de Conservatory 2 • Height of Renaissance style (geometrical plan) Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Tè, Mantua • “Painter’s architecture" • Contrast between classical and anti-classical form ◦ Shows knowledge of order but plays with style • Guilio ◦ Designed and decorated with students in workshop ◦ Was in a rush because Duke wanted to show off his building • Conceived as place to have lunch, transformed into palace complex • Low and wide • Rusticated stone coursing • Doric pilasters 3 Giulio Romano, loggia, Palazzo del Tè, mantua, 1524-43 • Combination of columns and architraves • Coffer tunnel vault (classical) 4 Giulio Romano, courtyard of the Palazzo del Tè, Mantua, 1527 -34 • Stones are not coursing are perfectly set, but draw attention • Uneven columns (closer/farther to each other) Left: Correggio, Jupiter and Io, c. 1530 Right: Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin, 1522-28. Fresco, Parma Cathedral • Left: Jupiter and Io ◦ Jupiter is cloud, woman is Io ◦ Seductive, suggestive 5 • Right: Assumption of Virgin ◦ Ecstatic scene, but religious ecstasy ◦ Traditional and conservative ◦ Represents the marriage of Virgin and Christ (Virgin is married to the church) Jacopo Sansovino: Venice, Library of St Mark’s, begun 1537, façade • Sansovino ◦ Becomes primary architect of Venice • Former site of executions, redesigned as positive space for the state • Aloga: Open walkway space on ground floor 6 Sansovino, Zecca, Venice, begun 1536 (with Library next door and San Marco to the right) • Rusticated ground floor • Succeeding floors have tiers with columns, round shape half column • Double window lintel (spans the jam on top of window) 7 Palladio, San Giorgio Maggiore, begun 1566 • Palladio ◦ Son of miller, trained as stone mason ◦ Wrote book inspired for Vitruvius for the client and the architect • How to make classical Roman temple that has uneven heights inside ◦ Superimposed composite order (columns) over second pediment with Corinthian order ◦ Combined two shapes into unified facade 8 Palladio, Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, ca. 1567-70 • Idealized vision • Completely symmetrical on all four ides • Not designed for practicality, but for perfection of form Titian, Venus of Urbino • Venus looks at beholder ◦ Play on modesty and whether it is modest ◦ Covers herself like Venus statues • Contemporary setting • Same model is in another painting owned by family • Would have been in bedchamber 9 Art History Lecture 11 September 16, 2016 Gillesle Breton. Cour du Cheval Blanc (Court of the White Horse), Fontainebleu, 1528-40 • Uniformity and horizontality ◦ Interrupted by vertical pieces, gives more of palace quality • Evocative of French architecture Left: The Unicorn in Captivity, from the Unicorn Tapestries. South Netherlandish or French. ca. 1500 Right: Francesco Primaticcio, Stucco Figures, Gallery of Francis I, designed for the Room of the Duchessed' Étampes, Château of Fontainebleau, France • Unicorn in Captivity ◦ Story of resurrection ◦ Interest in medieval patterns ▪ Symbolizes Christ’s resurrection along with marriage and love ◦ Interest in medieval patterns 2 Left: Parmigianino, Self-Portrait, c. 1522 Right: Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, ca. 1535 • Self Portrait ◦ When he was 21, painted self portrait to impress the Pope ◦ Himself in a convex mirror • Madonna with the Long Neck ◦ Extreme elongated forms 3 Francesco Primaticcio, Stucco Figures, Gallery of Francis I, designed for the Room of the Duchesse d'Étampes, Château of Fontainebleau, France • Idea of Primaticcio posing himself painting the scene Left: Francesco Primaticcio and Germain Pilon, Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de’ Medici. 1563-70. Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, Paris Right: Gisants of the king and queen, detail of the Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici, Abbey Church of St.-Denis, Paris • Idealized • Decrepit, decaying style 4 Pierre Lescot, Square Court, the Louvre, Paris, Begun 1546 • Was originally the Paris palace for the King • Italian style (windows, columns, etc.) 5 Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. Escorial. Begun 1563. Near Madrid • Italian palace style • Symmetry • Stripped down horizontal planes • No pediments 6 El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain, 1586 • Inquisition: Rooting out heretics ◦ Jesuits and Carmelites ◦ Emphasized meditations in order to communicate with God • El Greco ◦ Greek painter, went to Venice and then Spain until death • Painting deals with faith and works • Abstract forms in heaven represent divine ecstasy 7 Matthias Grünewald, St. Sebastian; The Crucifixion; St. Anthony Abbot; predella: Lamentation. Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), ca. 1509-10-15. • Reformation ◦ Martin Luther was a Catholic • Complaints about selling of indulgences ◦ Taking time off of purgatory time, certain people were selling them • Crucifixion exterior view ◦ Eerie light and background ◦ John the Baptist is lamb and Christ’s sacrifice 8 Matthias Grünewald, The Annunciation; Madonna and Child with Angels; The Resurrection. Second view of the Isenheim Altarpiece. ca. 1509/10-15 • On Sundays and feast days, opened up to reveal “happy” moments ◦ Redemption of Christ’s sacrifice • Golden orb moves across panels Michelangelo, Campidoglio, Rome (engraving by Étienne Dupérac, 1569) • In reaction to Reformation ◦ 1545, convening Council of Trent 9 ◦ Begin banning things such as books Michelangelo, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Campidoglio, Rome, Designed c. 1545 • Statue of Marcus Aurelius represents pope’s control Left: Michelangelo, St. Peter’s Rome, seen from the west. 1546-64; dome completed by Giacomo della Porta, 1590 Right: Étienne Dupéracafter Michelangelo, south elevation of St. Peter’s, 1569 • Colossal order • Michelangelo’s design ◦ Relied on Brunelleschi’s dome in Florence ▪ Points (gothic) 10 Left: Giacomo Vignola, Plan of Il Gesù, Rome, 1568 Right: Andrea Sacchiand JanMiel, Urban VIII Visiting IlGesù, 1639-41 • Council of Trent said everyone needed to see elevation of host during mass • Church eliminated side aisles so everyone can see 11 Giacomo della Porta, Façade of Il Gesù, Rome, c. 1575-84 • Pediments • Scroll buttresses hide height of upper levels 12
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