Chemistry of life continued and Cell theory intro
Chemistry of life continued and Cell theory intro BIOL 1110 04
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marguerite Slabber on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 04 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Adams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Chemistry of life continues… (Week 4 notes) 1 Carbon - is the central component of organic compounds i Unique properties make it able to form backbone of large, complex molecules essential to life ii Can form 4 covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms iii Sing, double, or triple bonds iv Can form straight, branched chains, join into rings v Carbon bonds are strong and not easily broken 2 Hydrocarbons - organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen 3 Isomers - compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures 4 Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules i Some are insoluble in water i Hydrocarbons ii Some are soluble in water iii Some are acidic 2 Polymers - long chains of monomers linked through condensation reactions (many biological molecules are polymers) i Large polymers such as proteins, polysaccharides, and DNA are called macromolecules i Monomer -smaller/simpler molecules 2 Carbohydrates i Most important/abundant group of organic compounds on earth ii Starches, sugars, and cellulose i Starches and sugars - serve as energy sources for cells ii Cellulose - main structural components of walls that surround plant cells ii Monosaccharides i Simple sugars ii Glucose, fructose, and ribose 1 Glucose and fructose are isomers ii Disaccharides i Two monosaccharides joined together ii Maltose and sucrose ii Polysaccharides i Lots of simple sugars linked (long chains of repeating simple sugars) ii Most carbohydrates iii Starch, glycogen and cellulose ii Carbs- most abundant organic compound i Sugar ii Starch 1 Primary form of energy storage in plants 2 Typical form of carbohydrate used for energy storage in plants a In granules in organelles called amyloplasts (specific to plants) ii Cellulose 1 Insoluble polysaccharide composed of many glucose molecules joined together 2 Most abundant carbohydrate (amounts for >50% of carbon in plants) 3 Humans lack enzymes to digest cellulose and cannot use it as a nutrient ii Glycogen (important in animals) 1 Form in which joined glucose subunits are stored as an energy source in animal tissues 2 Similar to starch but glycogen is more extensively branched and more water soluble 3 In vertebrates glycogen is mainly stored in liver and muscle cells ii Some Carbohydrates have special roles i Chitin - a main component of cell walls of fungi and of the external skeleton of insects, crayfish and arthropods ii Glycoproteins - compounds present on outer surface of cells 1 Most proteins secreted by cells are glycoproteins (mucus components) 2 Lipids (tends to be our fats) i Characterized by the fact that they are insoluble in some solvents (e.g. ether and chloroform) and relatively soluble in water ii Biologically important lipids i Fats 1 Most abundant lipids in living organisms 2 Efficient way to store energy ii Phospholipids 1 One end of the molecule is water soluble and one end is water insoluble a Components of cell membrane ii Carotenoids 1 Insoluble in water and oily consistency 2 Orange and yellow pigments a Trees (lots of orange and yellow) b Birds (consume) ii Steroids Cholesterol - component of animal cell membrane Bile salts - emulsify/breaks down fats in the intestines Hormones - regulate reproduction and metabolism iii Waxes 8. Proteins a Macromolecules composed of amino acids b Polymers c Amino acids - molecule containing amino group (--NH ) and2a carboxyl group (--COOH) d The most versatile cell component e Involved in almost all aspects of metabolism because most enzymes are proteins i Enzyme - molecules that accelerate chemical reaction in an organism b The chains that make up a protein are twisted or folded to form a macromolecule with a specific conformation (3D shape) c The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its conformation -> protein conformation determines function i AA sequence -> conformation ->function ii Proteins -> phenotype <- DNA i A single protein can have more than one distinct structural region, called a domain ii Each domain in a protein can have its own function iii 20 AMINO ACIDS IN EVERY PROTEIN a Sickle cell anemia - disease caused by mutation (physical change to DNA) that causes substitution of amino acid valine for glutamic acid in hemoglobin i This substitution makes the hemoglobin less soluble and more likely to form crystal structure ii This alteration affects red blood cells and makes them crescent shapes 9. Nucleic Acids a Transmit hereditary info and determine which proteins a cell manufactures b 2 types of cells 1 Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) Composed of genes and contains instructions for making proteins (guides processes of protein synthesis) 2 Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Participates in process in which amino acids are linked (there are 20 amino acids) b Nucleic acids are composed of A 5 carbon sugar (S) One or more phosphate group (P) Nitrogenous base (N) Purines (adenine, A; guanine, G) Pyrimidine (cytosine, C; thymine, T) A - T; C - G a Some other nucleotides function in energy transfers and other cell functions ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the major energy currency of cells CTP (guanosine triphosphate) can transfer energy and has role in cell signaling Cell Theory Hook - (1600's) first person to use word "cells" to describe room like structures Brown - (1800's) "nucleus" 1800's - when cell theory was developed "all living things are composed of cells" I Cell Theory 1 Basic units of organization and function in all living organisms 2 All cells come from other cells 3 All living cells have evolved from a common ancestor i Basic similarities in structure and molecules of which they're made ii Striking similarities at cellular level in diverse organism II Cell organization o Organization of cells and small size allow cells to maintain homeostasis Appropriately balance internal environment o To maintain homeostasis, contents must be separated from external environment Plasma membrane Structurally distinctive surface membrane that surrounds cell Makes interior of cell an enclosed compartment o Cells have organelles Internal structures Carry out metabolic activities and manufacturing structures necessary for functioning and reproduction Each cell has genetic instructions coded into it's DNA, which is in a limited region of the cell 2 Cell size is limited o Most cells are microscopic o Some are slightly bigger - e.g. human egg cell is size of a dot made with a pencil o Why? Consider what a cell must do to maintain homeostasis and grow Cells take in food and other materials and rid itself of waste Everything passes through plasma membrane Plasma membrane must be big enough to keep up with the demands of the cell Critical factor limiting size is ratio of surface area (plasma membrane) to it's volume (inside of cell) Ratio of the surface area to the volume that limits the cell size - cell becomes larger, volume increases at greater ratio than surface area Increasing critical size, number of molecules required could not be transported into and out of / around cell fast enough 3 Cell size and shape are adapted to function o Some cells change shape as they move o Sperm cells have long whip-like tails (flagella) for locomotion o Nerve cells have long, tin extensions that allow them to transmit messages great distances 4 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells = the two basic types of cells o Bacteria and archaea -> Prokaryotic o All other organisms -> Eukaryotic 5 Organelles in Prokaryotic Cells are not surrounded by membranes o Typically, smaller than eukaryotic cells o DNA typically located in nuclear are or nucleoid o Unlike nucleus in eukaryotic cells, nuclear area is not enclosed by membrane o Term "prokaryotic" means "before the nucleus" (= major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells) o Like eukaryotic cells, they're surrounded by a plasma membrane o Most have cell walls - extra cellular structures that enclose the entire cell o Many have flagella (for locomotion) Long fivers that project from surface o Bacterial cells contain ribosomes Small complexes of RNA and protein that synthesizes polypeptides Smaller than in Eukaryotic cells
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