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Chemistry of life continued and Cell theory intro

by: Marguerite Slabber

Chemistry of life continued and Cell theory intro BIOL 1110 04

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Chattanooga > Biology > BIOL 1110 04 > Chemistry of life continued and Cell theory intro
Marguerite Slabber

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Carbon, hydrocarbons, isomers, polymers etc. and then cell theory that was cover in week 4
Principles of Biology I
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marguerite Slabber on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 04 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Adams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Chemistry of life continues… (Week 4 notes) 1 Carbon - is the central component of organic compounds i Unique properties make it able to form backbone of large, complex molecules essential to life ii Can form 4 covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms iii Sing, double, or triple bonds iv Can form straight, branched chains, join into rings v Carbon bonds are strong and not easily broken 2 Hydrocarbons - organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen 3 Isomers - compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures 4 Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules i Some are insoluble in water i Hydrocarbons ii Some are soluble in water iii Some are acidic 2 Polymers - long chains of monomers linked through condensation reactions (many biological molecules are polymers) i Large polymers such as proteins, polysaccharides, and DNA are called macromolecules i Monomer -smaller/simpler molecules 2 Carbohydrates i Most important/abundant group of organic compounds on earth ii Starches, sugars, and cellulose i Starches and sugars - serve as energy sources for cells ii Cellulose - main structural components of walls that surround plant cells ii Monosaccharides i Simple sugars ii Glucose, fructose, and ribose 1 Glucose and fructose are isomers ii Disaccharides i Two monosaccharides joined together ii Maltose and sucrose ii Polysaccharides i Lots of simple sugars linked (long chains of repeating simple sugars) ii Most carbohydrates iii Starch, glycogen and cellulose ii Carbs- most abundant organic compound i Sugar ii Starch 1 Primary form of energy storage in plants 2 Typical form of carbohydrate used for energy storage in plants a In granules in organelles called amyloplasts (specific to plants) ii Cellulose 1 Insoluble polysaccharide composed of many glucose molecules joined together 2 Most abundant carbohydrate (amounts for >50% of carbon in plants) 3 Humans lack enzymes to digest cellulose and cannot use it as a nutrient ii Glycogen (important in animals) 1 Form in which joined glucose subunits are stored as an energy source in animal tissues 2 Similar to starch but glycogen is more extensively branched and more water soluble 3 In vertebrates glycogen is mainly stored in liver and muscle cells ii Some Carbohydrates have special roles i Chitin - a main component of cell walls of fungi and of the external skeleton of insects, crayfish and arthropods ii Glycoproteins - compounds present on outer surface of cells 1 Most proteins secreted by cells are glycoproteins (mucus components) 2 Lipids (tends to be our fats) i Characterized by the fact that they are insoluble in some solvents (e.g. ether and chloroform) and relatively soluble in water ii Biologically important lipids i Fats 1 Most abundant lipids in living organisms 2 Efficient way to store energy ii Phospholipids 1 One end of the molecule is water soluble and one end is water insoluble a Components of cell membrane ii Carotenoids 1 Insoluble in water and oily consistency 2 Orange and yellow pigments a Trees (lots of orange and yellow) b Birds (consume) ii Steroids  Cholesterol - component of animal cell membrane  Bile salts - emulsify/breaks down fats in the intestines  Hormones - regulate reproduction and metabolism iii Waxes 8. Proteins a Macromolecules composed of amino acids b Polymers c Amino acids - molecule containing amino group (--NH ) and2a carboxyl group (--COOH) d The most versatile cell component e Involved in almost all aspects of metabolism because most enzymes are proteins i Enzyme - molecules that accelerate chemical reaction in an organism b The chains that make up a protein are twisted or folded to form a macromolecule with a specific conformation (3D shape) c The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its conformation -> protein conformation determines function i AA sequence -> conformation ->function ii Proteins -> phenotype <- DNA i A single protein can have more than one distinct structural region, called a domain ii Each domain in a protein can have its own function iii 20 AMINO ACIDS IN EVERY PROTEIN a Sickle cell anemia - disease caused by mutation (physical change to DNA) that causes substitution of amino acid valine for glutamic acid in hemoglobin i This substitution makes the hemoglobin less soluble and more likely to form crystal structure ii This alteration affects red blood cells and makes them crescent shapes 9. Nucleic Acids a Transmit hereditary info and determine which proteins a cell manufactures b 2 types of cells 1 Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA)  Composed of genes and contains instructions for making proteins (guides processes of protein synthesis) 2 Ribonucleic acid (RNA)  Participates in process in which amino acids are linked (there are 20 amino acids) b Nucleic acids are composed of  A 5 carbon sugar (S)  One or more phosphate group (P)  Nitrogenous base (N)  Purines (adenine, A; guanine, G)  Pyrimidine (cytosine, C; thymine, T)  A - T; C - G a Some other nucleotides function in energy transfers and other cell functions ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the major energy currency of cells CTP (guanosine triphosphate) can transfer energy and has role in cell signaling Cell Theory Hook - (1600's) first person to use word "cells" to describe room like structures Brown - (1800's) "nucleus" 1800's - when cell theory was developed "all living things are composed of cells" I Cell Theory 1 Basic units of organization and function in all living organisms 2 All cells come from other cells 3 All living cells have evolved from a common ancestor i Basic similarities in structure and molecules of which they're made ii Striking similarities at cellular level in diverse organism II Cell organization o Organization of cells and small size allow cells to maintain homeostasis  Appropriately balance internal environment o To maintain homeostasis, contents must be separated from external environment  Plasma membrane  Structurally distinctive surface membrane that surrounds cell  Makes interior of cell an enclosed compartment o Cells have organelles  Internal structures  Carry out metabolic activities and manufacturing structures necessary for functioning and reproduction  Each cell has genetic instructions coded into it's DNA, which is in a limited region of the cell 2 Cell size is limited o Most cells are microscopic o Some are slightly bigger - e.g. human egg cell is size of a dot made with a pencil o Why?  Consider what a cell must do to maintain homeostasis and grow  Cells take in food and other materials and rid itself of waste  Everything passes through plasma membrane  Plasma membrane must be big enough to keep up with the demands of the cell  Critical factor limiting size is ratio of surface area (plasma membrane) to it's volume (inside of cell)  Ratio of the surface area to the volume that limits the cell size - cell becomes larger, volume increases at greater ratio than surface area  Increasing critical size, number of molecules required could not be transported into and out of / around cell fast enough 3 Cell size and shape are adapted to function o Some cells change shape as they move o Sperm cells have long whip-like tails (flagella) for locomotion o Nerve cells have long, tin extensions that allow them to transmit messages great distances 4 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells = the two basic types of cells o Bacteria and archaea -> Prokaryotic o All other organisms -> Eukaryotic 5 Organelles in Prokaryotic Cells are not surrounded by membranes o Typically, smaller than eukaryotic cells o DNA typically located in nuclear are or nucleoid o Unlike nucleus in eukaryotic cells, nuclear area is not enclosed by membrane o Term "prokaryotic" means "before the nucleus" (= major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells) o Like eukaryotic cells, they're surrounded by a plasma membrane o Most have cell walls - extra cellular structures that enclose the entire cell o Many have flagella (for locomotion)  Long fivers that project from surface o Bacterial cells contain ribosomes  Small complexes of RNA and protein that synthesizes polypeptides  Smaller than in Eukaryotic cells


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