Psych 100 Terms: Module 1-4
Psych 100 Terms: Module 1-4 100
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaella Kunz on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Matthews in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Psych 100 Module 1 Terms: structuralism - Used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind; Wundt, Titchener functionalism - How mental behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish; James, influenced by Darwin behaviorism - Studies behavior of people without reference to mental processes, objective science humanistic psychology - Studies how current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential; "good in people" cognitive psychology - Scientifically explores the ways we perceive, process, and remember information Freudian psychology - Emphasizes the ways out unconscious though processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior cognitive neuroscience - The study of the brain activity linked with cognition(including perception, thinking, memory, and language) psychology - The science of behavior and mental processes behavior - Anything an organism does that can be observed and recorded mental processes - The internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior - sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings Germany in 1879 when Wundt opened the first psychology lab - What even defined the start of scientific psychology? People's self-reports varied, depending on the experience and the person's intelligence and verbal ability. - Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works? Wilhelm Wundt - Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany Edward Titchener - Used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements William James - Legendary teach-writer who authored an important 1890 psychology text; mentored Calkins Mary Calkins - Was tutored by James; became a pioneering memory researcher; first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association Margaret Washburn - First woman to receive a psychology Ph.D.; synthesized animal behavior research in "The Animal Mind" John Watson and Rosalie Rayner - made psychology known as the scientific study of behavior B. F. Skinner - Leading behaviorist rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior Sigmund Freud - Controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity's self-understanding Behaviorism; Freudian - From the 1920s through the 1960s, the two major forces in psychology were ________________ and _____________ psychology It recaptured the field's early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific study - How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology? Ivan Pavlov - Pioneered the study of learning Charles Darwin - Argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies nature vs. nurture - Controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits natural selection - Nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment evolutionary psychology - The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection behavior genetics - The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior culture - Shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next positive psychology - Uses scientific methods to explore the building of a "good life" that engages our skills, and a "meaningful life" that points beyond ourselves levels of analysis - The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to socio-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon biopsychosocial approach - Considers the influences of biological, psychologist, and social-cultural factors neuroscience - How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences evolutionary - How natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes psychodynamic - How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts behavioral - How we learn observable responses cognitive - How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information social-cultural - How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures By incorporating different levels of analysis, it can provide a more complete view that any one perspective could offer - What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying logical events? basic research - Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge biological psychologists - Explores the links between brain and mind developmental psychologists - Studies our changing abilities from womb to tomb cognitive psychologists - Experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems personality psychologists - Investigates our persistent traits social psychologists - Explores how we view and affect on another applied research - Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems industrial-organizational psychologists - Uses psychology's concepts and methods in the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees, boost morale, etc. counseling psychologists - Help people cope with challenges and crisis clinical psychologists - Assess and treat people with mental, emotional, and behavior disorders psychiatrists - Medical doctors who are licensed to give medications community psychologists - Work to create social and physical environments that are healthy for all testing effect - Also known as retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning; uses testing of material to learn better SQ3R - Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review Psych Module 2 and 3 Terms: intuition - An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought hindsight bias - I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon hindsight bias - Why, after friends start dating, fo we often feel that we knew they were meant to be together? critical thinking - A way of thinking that examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions theory - An explanation of behavior or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed hypothesis - A testable prediction, often implied by a theory operational definition - A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study replicate - Repeating the essence of a research study, using different participants in different situations descriptive methods - Describes behaviors, often through case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations correlational methods - Describes behaviors by associating different factors experimental methods - Describes behaviors by manipulating factors to discover their effects case study - In-depth analyses of individuals or groups naturalistic observations - Watching and recording the natural behavior of many individuals, without manipulating it surveys and interviews - Asking people questions Case studies involve only one individual or group, so we can't know for sure whether the principles observed would apply to a larger population - We cannot assume that case studies always reveal general principles that apply to all of us. Why not? population - All those in a group being studied, from which samples are being drawn from random sample - A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion unrepresentative sample - A survey group that does not represent the population being studied correlation - A statistical measure that helps us figure how closely two things vary together, and how each one predicts the other scatterplots - A graphed cluster of dots that represents the values of two variables illusory correlation - Feeds an illusion of control by believing that chance events are subject to personal control regression toward the mean - The tendency for the extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back toward the average experiment - A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) experimental group - The group that receives treatment control group - The group that does not retrieve treatment randomly assign - Assignments of participants by chance double-blind procedure - Neither the participant nor those who administer the drug and collect the data will know which group is receiving the treatment placebo effect - Expecting something to work, so in turn, it does independent variable - The variable that can be controlled/changed confounding variables - Other factors, that can potentially influence the results of the experiment dependent variable - The variable that can't be controlled, such as a person's past experiences or the question that is asked to everyone confounding variable - By using random assignment, researchers are able to control for __________________, which are other factors that can influence results. informed consent - Giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate debriefing - The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants Psych 100 Module 4 Terms: measure of central tendency - A single score that represents a whole set of scores mode - The most frequently occurring score or scores mean - Average of all scores median - The middle of the scores variation - How similar or diverse the scores are range - The gap between the lowest and highest standard deviation - A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score normal curve - A bell-shaped graph presents this statistical significance - The observed difference is probably not due to chance variation between samples
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