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Psych 205, week 3

by: Harman Suri

Psych 205, week 3 PSY 205

Harman Suri
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Nervous system and affect on psychological behaviour
Psychology : Foundations of Human Behaviour
M. Morton
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harman Suri on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 205 at Syracuse University taught by M. Morton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psychology : Foundations of Human Behaviour in Psychology at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 09/18/16
3. Scientific Investigation ­ Formulate a hypothesis, Design a study ( a method), Collect the data, Put  together findings for publishing, Revise or refine the theory  Step 1: Formulate a hypothesis: Variable­ measurable condition, event or behaviour that are  controlled or observed. Operational definition: described action used to measure or control variable. Example: Variable: Anxiety Operational def.: Childs heartbeat exceed a certain amount. Example: Alcohol Opearional def: Ability to ride in a straight line Hypothesis: Testable Prediction to what might happen or predict an outcome. Theory: A system of interrelated ideas used to explain and summarise a set of observations. Has  to be testable, Goal is understanding.  Selecting a research method: Surveys, Interviews Naturalistic Observations ­ Prisons, Schools, Wildlife Habitat ( The person actually goes to the  setting) Ads and Disads­  Behaviour is more realistic Lead to experiment Best for wildlife and watching the animals. Disad: Reactivity­ People might change behaviour because they are being watched. Festinger Researcher ­ researchers were interested in cult members’ attitudes and beliefs. They  became members. Surprisingly, after the world didn't end, the strength of the cult members actually increased.  Week 3 The study of connection between biology and behaviour is Biological Psychology Also known as: Neuropsychology Biopsychology Psychobiology Physiological Psychology What happens if someone throws a candy to you?: Your eyes perceive a stimulus Your brain interprets that stimulus and signals are sent to other parts of your body. Your heart rate increases you become more alert, muscular movements enable you to catch the  candy Conclusion: Behaviour depends on rapid information processing within your nervous system The Nervous system : 2 parts  Central Nervous System: The brain and Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System: Various nervous systems The biology behind behaviour Nervous system is living tissue composed of cells. Neurons: Nerve cells that receive, integrate and transmit info,  basic building blocks of the nervous system Glia: supports nervous system 50% of brain volume!   Types of neurons: Sensory neurons ­ carry messages from sensory organs to spinal cord or brain Motor neurons ­ carry messages from spinal cord or brain to muscle and glands Inter neurons ­ carry messages from one neuron to another  Mirror neurons ­ brain mirrors the movement it sees mechanism for empathy tie us to others actions & feelings Structure of the dendrites Dendrites: receive information Soma : cell body, contains cell nucleus Axon: transmits info away from the soma to other neurons Myelin Sheath: insulates axons, speed up transmission ­ Multiple Scelerosis occurs when myelin layer is destroyed Numbness, weakness and paralysis occurs Terminal Buttons: secrete neurotransmitters  Synapse: junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to another Steps:  Dendrites receive information neuron integrates information, decides to fire neuron electrical impulse downwards neurotransmitters are released  Communication between neurons  Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another Released into the synapse Bind with receptor sites like a lock and key Types of Neurotransmitters Serotonin: sleep, mood, hunger ­ Low: depressing  High: ocd ­ Endorphins: pleasure, pain relief and response to stress ­ ‘morphine within’ resemble opiate drugs ­ Dopamine: voluntary movement,pleasurable emotions ­ Low: Parkinson ’s High: Schizophrenia ­ Acetylcholine: voluntary movement, attention, arousal, memory ­ Deterioration of ch­producing neurons marks alzheimer ’s disease Norepinephrine: mood and arousal ­low: depression, adhd Oxytocin: the ‘love hormone’ that acts like a neurotransmitter in the brain Effect of drugs on neurotransmitters  Antagonist  ­Chemical that blocks the action of neurotransmitters   Agonists ­ Chemical that mimics neurotransmitters  Reuptake Inhibitors ­ Chemical that binds to the terminal repute, thereby causing an excess of that NT Neural communication big picture neurons communicate with other neurons via the neurotransmitters ­ This communication operates within the nervous system, sending messages to the brain and to the nerves outside the brain. Parts of the brain Frontal Lobe: reasoning, thinking, planning, problem solving, parts of speech etc. Broca’s area: speech population ­ located in left frontal lobe Broca’s Aphasia ­ problems producing speech, attempts to speak, nothing comes out Temporal Lobe: processes auditory information, organises verbal material, important for the  processing of semantics in speech Wernicke’s Area­ comprehension of language, located in left temporal lobe Wernicke’s aphasia­ problems comprehending language, jumbled speech Occipital Lobe: Processes visual information  Damage to the primary visual cortex can cause blindness Parietal Lobe Processes somatosensory information Integrates sensory information from various parts of the body


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