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Angela Dela Llana
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angela Dela Llana on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soci 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Jason Shelton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
SOCI 1311 Chatper 4: Socialization Socialization Socialization is the process by which we learn and internalize the components of culture, as well as develop a sense of self. We learn our culture through socialization. We start the pr It is a life-long process. Through socialization, you learn freshmen in college are learning how to live away from home and are trying to fit in with a new group of people. We figure out who we are and develop a sense of self. Figuring out your major is an example of this. Cultural transmission is the idea that we pass our culture onto the next generation, passing on the knowledge to a new group of people. it dies. We have to pass on the culture for it to survive. Examples include passing on a family tradition or a family recipe. Debate over Nature vs. Nurture What makes us who we are as individuals? The nature position is the most popular historically, but now in the modern day, the nurture position is becoming more popular. The nature position stresses in-born biological characteristics. You are who you are because of your genetics. From a very young age, we can figure out how smart yo going to end up being a troublemaker or a criminal. Social Darwinism applies to both individuals and groups. Spencer argued that what makes you fit is your in-born biological characteristics, in individuals and in groups. If likely say that person A is going to do really well and that person B will not because of their genetic code. He argued that whites had a stronger genetic code than blacks. Also, he argued that Anglo- Saxons had a stronger genetic code than other white groups. You can rank groups from top to bottom according to how strong their genes are. The nurture position stresses environment and social forces in society. paper th s already filled out while nurture theorists Nurture theorists logical makeup that determines your intelligence and other factors. In their research, th id you grow up in poverty? Did your parents go to college? Have you been exposed to things? Have you been in an environment that maximizes your potential for success? Stratification describes how people can be ranked by different categories. These categories include race, gender, religion, and other distinctions. Nature theorists point to twins in support of their argument, while nurture theorists point to feral children. Twins separated at birth have the same genetic code but were raised in different environments. Nature theorists suggest that genetics are more important than environment. For example, two long-lost brothers find out they have a twin and reunite. They discover that they have the same favorite football team, same kind of dog, same car, same college major, same career choice, both democrats and named their children the same names. One of them grew up in dire poverty, while the other one grew up not so poor. Feral child is a technical term for a child who was raised in isolation. This could be a child who was locked in an attic or a barn. They are not socialized like the rest of society. Feral children show the importance of forming a group and an identity. Tarzan is a classic example of a feral child. Two famous case studies on feral children are the cases of Anna and Isabelle. These two grew up under similar conditions and were found at age 6. They both grew up in dark rooms, were barely speak, and were not toilet trained, among other problems. These girls were placed in intense socialization programs so they could catch up. Anna died within a year of being discovered because h the stress of catching up with children her age. Group environment is so important that the perception of falling behind can be a life/death situation. Within a year, Isabelle was reading, walking, and talking. Sociobiology serves as the middle ground between nature and nurture. It was formed from the idea that nature and nurtu mutually exclusive. Sociology and biology go together. Sociobiology has three core ideas: All individuals are born with a genetic code. What you inherit from your ancestors is important. All individuals are shaped by their environment and social forces. The opportunities that people come across is important. For example, children with parents who are drop outs received different opportunities compared to children with parents who graduated from college. Individuals represent the interplay between genetics and the environment. You come out into the world as a blank slate, but some of the genes you carry need to be turned on. For example, you may carry an alcoholism trait, , never turn on. Genes can be turned on and off. Theories of Socialization Theories of socialization include Freudian theory, looking glass self, development of self, and situated self. Freudian theory was conceived by Sigmund Freud. Freud believes that we are driven by our subconscious, the impulses and urges deep within. According to him, pleasure is what we ultimately want, and there is an internal conflict within us because of the id, superego, and ego. There are three parts to our personality: id, superego, and ego. The id is the part of your personality that is way back there in your subconscious, the part of you that houses your impulses and urges. The superego is your conscience, your ultimate sense of right and wrong. If the id can be seen as the devil on your shoulder, the superego is the angel on your other shoulder. The id and the superego go against each other. The ego resolves the conflict between the id and the superego. component of your personality. The looking glass self, created by Charles Cooley, says that we use our eyes to look out into our world and interpret what we see. We grow out from our interactions and the perceptions of others. The looking glass self has three components: 1. Your opinion about something in society. 2. . 3. You adjusting yourself based on your guess about how someone feels. Here is one example that covers each component: 1. I think I look good today. 2. I think that she thinks I look good too. 3. I feel embarrassed. You change your opinion and behavior when you figure out what she thinks. The development of self was created by George Mead. Mead agrees with both Freud and Cooley, so he created a middle ground with his theory. I nd is pleasure- knows the difference between right and wrong. The situated self, a newer theory, presents the idea that different people and different situations bring about different aspects of your personality. This theory was not developed by one person but a collection of writers. For example, how you act at church is different from how you act at a football game. Code-switching is derived from research on race, ethnic, and religious situations. We all follow the cultural codes of the moment dependin Jewish family behaves differently in the temple than outside in a multi-cultural setting. Each of these theories of socialization are related to the debate on whether the human mind is active or passive. Freud assumes the mind is passive because of the id. The looking glass self assumes the mind is active. Development is self has both active and passive elements, but scholars would argue that its more passive because of the I. The situated self assumes the mind is active. Six Major Sources of Socialization Some are more important than others, and not all scholars agree that some of these are even major sources of socialization. Six major sources of socialization are family, education, peers, religion, employment, and media. Scholars agree that first three affect all of us. Family is considered to be the most important source of socialization since our family is our first ever source of interaction. One important thing family does is teach us the idea of the sex role. Families teach boys how to be boys and girls how to be girls. Education gives us both formal and informal knowledge. Not only do students learn formal subjects such as math and science, they also learn about things like authority, patriotism, and power. Peers influence through peer pressure. Peer pressure is the conflicting messages from our peers and the authority figures (parents, teachers, and clergy) that we grew up with. For example, your parents and your church teach you to say no drugs, but then you become a teenager and make friends that say otherwise. It is a period that everyone goes through. Religion is fundamentally important to some people but not to everyone, which is why some scholars disagree on it being a major source of socialization. Employment is key to people in America. Media affects everyone differently since we each engage in different types of media. Other Important Terms Life-course is the process by which individuals move from one biological and social stage to another. The phrase reflects the idea that your behavior is supposed to change as you age. The way you act when you 5. Rites of passage are ceremonies or events that mark transitions through the life-course. Examples include Quinceañera, Bar/Bat Mitzvah, graduation, and getting your a rite of passage that marks adulthood. Total institution is a place of residence where inhabitants experience a complete restriction of their physical freedom in order to be resocialized into a new identity. Examples of total institutions include mental health institutions, rehab, prisons, convents, and the military. You are taken out of the general population, put in an institution, and afterwards, you are a different person. Degradation ceremony (also known as mortification process) is an event or ceremony that embarrasses you. You are a different person after a degradation ceremony, and the old you would b degrading. What all of them have in common is that they completely change the person. Examples include baptism and going to the military.
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