Psych 100 Module 5-7 Terms
Psych 100 Module 5-7 Terms 100
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaella Kunz on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Matthews in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Psych 100 Module 5 Terms: phrenology - studying bumps on the skull biological perspective - concerned with the links between biology and behavior neuron - a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system dendrite - branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body axon - neuron extension that passes messages though its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands myelin sheath - a layer of fatty tissue that insulates them and speeds their impulses glial cells - cells that support, nourish, and protect neurons; may play a role in learning, thinking, and memory action potential - a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon ions - electrically charged atoms resting potential - positive-outside/negative-inside selectively permeable - only allowing certain things in/out depolarization - the loss of the resting potential refractory period - a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired excitatory neurons - like pushing an accelerator inhibitory neurons - like pushing a brake threshold - the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural response all-or-none-response - the kind of response that a neuron exhibits dendrite; cell body; axon - When a neuron fires an action potential, the information travels through the axon, the dendrites, and the cell body, but not in that order. Place these three in order Stronger stimuli cause more neurons to fire and to fire more frequently than happens with weaker stimuli - How does our nervous system allow us to experience the difference between a slap and a tap on the back? synapse - the junction between one neuron's axon, and one neuron's dendrite synaptic cleft - the tiny gap in the synapse neurotransmitters - chemical transmitters that cross the synaptic cleft reuptake - a neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron Neuron's axons send neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft. From here, they bind to the other neuron's receptor sites on the dendrite - What happens in the synaptic cleft? motor neurons - carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the body's tissues and skeletal muscles ACh - enables muscle action, learning, and memory dopamine - influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion serotonin - affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal norepinephrine - helps control alertness and arousal GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid - a major inhibitory neurotransmitter glutamate - a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory endorphins - "morphine within" - neurotransmitter linked to pain agonist - a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's actions antagonist - a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter's actions nervous system - the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network central nervous system; CNS - the brain and spinal cord peripheral nervous system; PNS - the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body nerves - bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs sensory neurons - neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord interneurons - neurons within the brain and spinal cord; communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and the motor outputs somatic nervous system - the division of the PNS that controls the body's voluntary skeletal muscles automatic nervous system - part of the PNS that controls the involuntary muscles sympathetic - arouse the body; mobilizing it's energy parasympathetic - conserves energy and calms reflexes - automatic response to stimuli endocrine system - chemical communication by gland secretions into the bloodstream hormones - chemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine system that travel through the bloodstream to affect other tissues adrenal glands - glands that sit on top the kidney that release epinephrine or norepinephrine pituitary gland - most influential gland; regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands hypothalamus - area of the brain that controls the pituitary gland The pituitary gland controls all the other glands to secrete their hormones, while also secreting it's own - Why is the pituitary gland called the "master gland"? Both of these produce chemical messengers that act on the body's receptors to influence behavior and emotion. The endocrine system secretes hormones into the bloodstream which takes longer than the nervous system. The effects of the endocrine system's messages tend to linger much long than the nervous system - How are the nervous and endocrine system alike, and how do they differ? Psych 100 Module 6 Terms: electroencephalogram (EEG) - an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp lesion - tissue destruction positron emission tomography (PET) - a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - a technique using magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue ventricles - fluid-filled brain areas functional MRI (fMRI) - can reveal the brain's functioning as well as structure diffusion spectrum imaging - can map long-distance brain connections brainstem - the oldest part and central core of the brain. It begins where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; its responsible for automatic survival functions medulla - the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing pons - helps coordinate movements and control sleep thalamus - a pair of egg-shaped structures that act as the brain's sensory control center reticular formation - between ears' a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important rile in controlling arousal cerebellum - the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory basal ganglia - involved in motor movement cerebellum; thalamus; reticular formation; medulla - In what brain region would damage be most likely to (1) disrupt your ability to skip rope? (2) disrupt your ability to hear and taste? (3) perhaps leave you in a coma? (4) cut off the very breath and heartbeat of life? limbic system - neural system including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, located below the cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions and drives hippocampus - helps process explicit memories for storage amygdala - two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to aggression and fear hypothalamus - below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward Psych Module 7 Terms: cerebral cortex - the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control information-processing center frontal lobe - just behind the forehead; used for judgements, plans, muscle movements, and speaking temporal lobe - above the ears; receives auditory info parietal lobe - top of the head, toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position occipital lobe - back of the head; receives visual info somatosensory cortex - front of the parietal love that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations association areas - involved in higher mental functions like learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking plasticity - the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience constraint-induced therapy - a therapy aimed to rewire brains and improve the dexterity of brain-damaged child or even and adult with a stroke neurogenesis - the formation of new brain cells corpus callosum - the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them spilt brain - a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the corpus callosum
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