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Week 4, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development

by: Marshall DeFor

Week 4, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development EDPS 251

Marketplace > University of Nebraska Lincoln > Educational Psychology > EDPS 251 > Week 4 EDPS 251 Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Marshall DeFor
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These notes cover Vygotsky’s Theory of learning and how we can incorporate some of his ideas into the classroom setting. These notes also include a study guide of pages 99-114 of John W. Santrock's...
Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education
Class Notes
Psychology, adolescence, vygotsky
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDPS 251 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jarrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education in Educational Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 09/18/16
EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  Week 4 Recap  Hello, fellow students! Once again, it’s me, Marshall DeFor. This week, we talked more about  Vygotsky’s Theory of learning and how we can incorporate his ideas into the classroom setting.  I wrote all of the following material, unless it is otherwise cited. Life gets crazy, so hopefully, this  takes some of the pressure off of missing a day or missing a section of notes or reading!    Table of Contents:  Lectures Notes  Monday  Wednesday  Friday  Study Guide: Readings for the Week  Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 92­99    Lectures  Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only.   I am a human, and I make mistakes. I cannot write down everything that is said or presented. These notes  should provide you with a large amount of what was discussed in class, but may not include all of the  material that you need to know. The main goal of these lecture notes are to help you remember points of  each lecture that are not included in the slides provided by the instructor.  Monday  The instructor was sick. No class, no lecture notes.  Wednesday  ● Lev S. Vygotsky (1896­1934)  ○ Russian psychologist and educator (about the same time as Piaget, wasn’t  widely known about until later)  ○ Upset Communist party led to suppression of his work  ○ Wrote over 100 books and articles  ○ About 1978 when some of his works were published in Mind and Society he  became popular in US  ● Sociocultural theory: focuses on the social context and culture of learning and cognitive  development  ○ Social constructivist: emphasis on social context of learning and construction of  knowledge through social interaction  ○ Knowledge advancement is collaborative and can be promoted through  cooperative activities with others  ○ While Piaget has stages, Vygotsky views as a continuum  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  ○ Intersubjectivity: two participants start with different concepts or understandings  and arrive at a shared understanding (advanced and novice)  ○ Zone of proximal development: range of tasks individual can complete with  assistance; this is where we want our learning to take place      ■ As difficulty increases, level of assistance increases; there is a range  even within zones of proximal development  ■ The zone of proximal development will move with time; this is because  the level of independent performance gets higher  ○ Scaffolding (idea built off of Vygotsky’s findings)  ■ The idea that a teacher or guide can provide support that helps an  individual get from current knowledge abilities to further knowledge  abilities  ■ Support mechanism, guidance or structure, provided by a more  competent individual, that helps a child successfully perform a task within  his or her ZPD  ● ZPD sets limitations  ● Gradual withdrawal of support as the child’s knowledge and  confidence increase  ■ Examples: chemistry tutor during first week, gradually letting kids walk to  school on their own, job training  ■ Ways to provide Scaffolding:  ● Demonstrating solutions  ● Simplifying the task  ● Maintaining participation  ● Give clear expectations  ● Providing feedback  ● Controlling frustration  ○ Reciprocal Teaching (idea built off of Vygotsky’s findings)  ■ Students take turns asking teacher­like questions of their classmates  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  ■ One Reciprocal Teaching Strategy:  ● Summarizing: pupils highlight important information  ● Question generating: pupils generate questions from highlighted  information  ● Clarifying: pupils make concerted attempts to clarify concepts or  vocabulary that is not understood  ● Predicting: pupils deliberate on what is implied in the text and  make connections to prior knowledge  ○ Cooperative learning (idea built off of Vygotsky’s findings)  ■ Students complete group projects that emphasize a common goal  ■ Different levels of ability and various specialties  ○ Guided participation: active engagement in adult activities  ■ Considerable assistance from an adult or other more advanced individual  ■ Children are given more independence and responsibility as they  increase experience and proficiency  ■ Example: Driver’s Education  ● Review of Schemas: Piaget’s Theory centers around the idea that children are active  learners and that they develop their ideas of the world through various cognitive  processes. The main way that children develop their ideas of the world is through  different ​schemas: ​mental concepts or frameworks that are useful in organizing and  interpreting information (Santrock, p. 93).  ○ There are two main ways that children adapt or change schemas:  ■ assimilation: ​the incorporation of new information into existing  knowledge (Santrock, p. 93)  ■ accommodation:  ​ an adjustment of a schema in response to new  information (Santrock, p. 93)  ○ When children get new information, it causes a process known​ quilibration:  a mechanism in Piaget’s theory that explains how individuals shift from one state  of thought to the next; the shift occurs as individuals experience cognitive conflict  or a disequilibrium in trying to understand the world; eventually, the individual  resolves the conflict and reaches a balance, or equilibrium, of thought (Santrock,  p. 93).  ○ Situation:  ■ Schema for “cat”:  ● Soft  ● Tail  ● Moves sometimes  ● Mean  ● Small  ● Claws  ● Four legs  ■ Encounters chihuahua!  ● Equilibrium = “I got this!”  ● Disequilibrium = “I don’t got this...”  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  Friday  We worked on vignettes in groups. No lecture notes.  I am a human, and I make mistakes. These notes are ​not comprehensive​ and do not tell you all of what  the material has to offer. The purpose of these notes is to remind you of basic concepts and vocabulary  ​ Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 99­114  Definitions are taken from the following source and cited parenthetically:  ​ Side note: For another section guide for chapter 3 section     Chapter ​ A. Section 2: The Cognitive Developmental View  B. Section 3: The Information­Processing View  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  a. selective attention:​ focusing on a specific aspect of experience  that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant (Santrock,  p.102)  b. divided attention:​ concentrating on more than one activity at the  same time (Santrock, p.102)  c. sustained attention:​ the ability to maintain attention to a selected  stimulus for a prolonged period of time (Santrock, p.102)  d. executive attention:​ type of attention that involves planning  actions, allocating attention to goals, detecting and compensating  for errors, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or  difficult circumstances (Santrock, p.102)  ii. Memory  1. memory:​ the retention of information over time  (Santrock, p.102)  2. There are three important memory systems involved in adolescents’  learning:  a. Short­Term Memory: This type of memory holds information for  about thirty seconds, and it can hold very little information at one  time.  b. Working Memory: Many psychologists prefer this term to  short­term memory because it better represents all of the memory  work that takes place during this period, since the memory  process is much more active and powerful. This part of memory is  thought to increase greatly during adolescence.  c. Long­Term Memory: This is the part of memory that holds most of  an individual’s past memories and information. If an individual’s  memory is undamaged, much of this information can be held for  an individual’s entire life.  c. executive function:​ an umbrella­like concept that involves higher­order, complex cognitive  processes that include exercising cognitive control, making decisions, reasoning, thinking  critically, thinking creatively, and metacognition (Santrock, p. 105)  i. Cognitive Control  1. cognitive control: ​the capacity to control attention, reduce interfering  thoughts, and be cognitively flexible (Santrock, p. 105)  a. Cognitive control increases with age throughout childhood and  adolescence.  b. Students who, at a young age, show better cognitive control are  more likely to be in school and less likely to be taking drugs in  adolescence.  2. Control Attention and Reduce Interfering Thoughts: Different types of  distractions and interfering thoughts can be things from the external  environment, such as social media, or self­oriented thoughts, such as  worry or doubt.  3. Be Cognitively Flexible: If students feel confident in their abilities to adapt  their thinking to different situations, it raises their cognitive flexibility, which  involves being aware of other ways of thinking in a situation and adapting  one’s thinking to the best way of thinking.  ii. Decision Making  1. From childhood to adolescence, decision­making competence usually gets  higher with age.  2. Most people make better decisions when calm than when they are greatly  emotionally affected or stressed.  3. Social contexts also play a role in decision­making. This falls along the  lines of all of your friends deciding to jump off of a bridge; this makes you  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  much more likely to make this decision than if none of your friends decided  to jump off of a bridge.  4. One theory that has been proposed about how adolescents make  decisions is the ​fuzzy­trace theory dual­process model:​ states that  decision making is influenced by two systems—”verbatim” analytical  thinking (literal and precise) and gist­based intuition (simple, bottom­line  meaning), which operate in parallel; in this model, it is the gist­based  system that benefits adolescents’ decision making most (Santrock, p. 108).  In risky situations, adolescents often get the gist of things and make  decisions based on that, instead of getting all of the information.  iii. critical thinking: ​ thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the  evidence (Santrock, p. 108)  1. Mindfulness is described as being mentally alert while going through life.  Some psychologists believe that mindfulness should be taught in schools.   2. Developmental Changes: some developmental changes that occur during  adolescence include:  a. increased speed and capacity of information processing  b. greater breadth of content knowledge  c. increased ability to construct new combinations of knowledge  d. a greater range of strategies for obtaining/applying knowledge  3. Schools:   a. Presenting students with controversial topics or articles and  presenting both sides of an issue to discuss is one way to  encourage students to think critically in schools.  b. Many students are used to passive learning, or being told  information instead of generating new ideas for themselves. This  makes the process of teaching critical thinking more difficult for  educators.  iv. Creative Thinking  1. creativity: ​the ability to think in novel and unusual ways and discover  unique solutions to problems (Santrock, p. 110)  2. One way to differ creativity and intelligence is to think of it in terms of two  different types of thinking:  a. convergent thinking:​ a pattern of thinking in which individuals  produce one correct answer; characteristic of the items on  conventional intelligence tests (Santrock, p. 110)  b. divergent thinking:​ a pattern of thinking in which individuals  produce many answers to the same question; more characteristic  of creativity than convergent thinking (Santrock, p. 110)  3. Creative thinking seems to be declining in adolescents. This makes  increasing student creativity an important goal for educations. Some  strategies for this include:  a. Brainstorming  b. Creativity­stimulating environments  c. Not overcontrolling students  d. Building confidence  e. Encouraging internal motivation  f. Building persistence and delaying gratification  g. Encouraging intellectual risks  h. Introducing students to creative people  v. Expertise  1. Experts are better than novices at detecting meaningful patterns of  information within a content area, accumulating content knowledge and  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  organizing it in an insightful way, and retrieving important aspects of  knowledge within the content area with little effort.  2. One perspective claims that it takes deliberate practice combined with  talent to differentiate between experts and novices.  vi. Metacognition  1. What Is Metacognition?  a. metacognition:​ cognition about cognition, or “knowing about  knowing” (Santrock, p. 112)  b. This includes knowing which strategies to use in order to learn or  solve problems, planning how much time to focus on a task, or  self­monitoring progress towards completion of a goal.  2. Strategies: Metacognition includes knowledge about strategies. Thinkers  with good metacognition skills know when to use which strategies in order  to complete a goal.  vii. Domain­Specific Thinking Skills: Like metacognitive skills, domain­specific thinking  skills can be taught. Domain­specific thinking skills in subjects such as writing,  math, science, and history help teachers and students with the transfer of different  types of information. 


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