Week 4, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Week 4, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development EDPS 251
Popular in Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Educational Psychology
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDPS 251 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jarrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education in Educational Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Reviews for Week 4, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/18/16
EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 Week 4 Recap Hello, fellow students! Once again, it’s me, Marshall DeFor. This week, we talked more about Vygotsky’s Theory of learning and how we can incorporate his ideas into the classroom setting. I wrote all of the following material, unless it is otherwise cited. Life gets crazy, so hopefully, this takes some of the pressure off of missing a day or missing a section of notes or reading! Table of Contents: Lectures Notes Monday Wednesday Friday Study Guide: Readings for the Week Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 9299 Lectures Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only. I am a human, and I make mistakes. I cannot write down everything that is said or presented. These notes should provide you with a large amount of what was discussed in class, but may not include all of the material that you need to know. The main goal of these lecture notes are to help you remember points of each lecture that are not included in the slides provided by the instructor. Monday The instructor was sick. No class, no lecture notes. Wednesday ● Lev S. Vygotsky (18961934) ○ Russian psychologist and educator (about the same time as Piaget, wasn’t widely known about until later) ○ Upset Communist party led to suppression of his work ○ Wrote over 100 books and articles ○ About 1978 when some of his works were published in Mind and Society he became popular in US ● Sociocultural theory: focuses on the social context and culture of learning and cognitive development ○ Social constructivist: emphasis on social context of learning and construction of knowledge through social interaction ○ Knowledge advancement is collaborative and can be promoted through cooperative activities with others ○ While Piaget has stages, Vygotsky views as a continuum EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 ○ Intersubjectivity: two participants start with different concepts or understandings and arrive at a shared understanding (advanced and novice) ○ Zone of proximal development: range of tasks individual can complete with assistance; this is where we want our learning to take place ■ As difficulty increases, level of assistance increases; there is a range even within zones of proximal development ■ The zone of proximal development will move with time; this is because the level of independent performance gets higher ○ Scaffolding (idea built off of Vygotsky’s findings) ■ The idea that a teacher or guide can provide support that helps an individual get from current knowledge abilities to further knowledge abilities ■ Support mechanism, guidance or structure, provided by a more competent individual, that helps a child successfully perform a task within his or her ZPD ● ZPD sets limitations ● Gradual withdrawal of support as the child’s knowledge and confidence increase ■ Examples: chemistry tutor during first week, gradually letting kids walk to school on their own, job training ■ Ways to provide Scaffolding: ● Demonstrating solutions ● Simplifying the task ● Maintaining participation ● Give clear expectations ● Providing feedback ● Controlling frustration ○ Reciprocal Teaching (idea built off of Vygotsky’s findings) ■ Students take turns asking teacherlike questions of their classmates EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 ■ One Reciprocal Teaching Strategy: ● Summarizing: pupils highlight important information ● Question generating: pupils generate questions from highlighted information ● Clarifying: pupils make concerted attempts to clarify concepts or vocabulary that is not understood ● Predicting: pupils deliberate on what is implied in the text and make connections to prior knowledge ○ Cooperative learning (idea built off of Vygotsky’s findings) ■ Students complete group projects that emphasize a common goal ■ Different levels of ability and various specialties ○ Guided participation: active engagement in adult activities ■ Considerable assistance from an adult or other more advanced individual ■ Children are given more independence and responsibility as they increase experience and proficiency ■ Example: Driver’s Education ● Review of Schemas: Piaget’s Theory centers around the idea that children are active learners and that they develop their ideas of the world through various cognitive processes. The main way that children develop their ideas of the world is through different schemas: mental concepts or frameworks that are useful in organizing and interpreting information (Santrock, p. 93). ○ There are two main ways that children adapt or change schemas: ■ assimilation: the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge (Santrock, p. 93) ■ accommodation: an adjustment of a schema in response to new information (Santrock, p. 93) ○ When children get new information, it causes a process known quilibration: a mechanism in Piaget’s theory that explains how individuals shift from one state of thought to the next; the shift occurs as individuals experience cognitive conflict or a disequilibrium in trying to understand the world; eventually, the individual resolves the conflict and reaches a balance, or equilibrium, of thought (Santrock, p. 93). ○ Situation: ■ Schema for “cat”: ● Soft ● Tail ● Moves sometimes ● Mean ● Small ● Claws ● Four legs ■ Encounters chihuahua! ● Equilibrium = “I got this!” ● Disequilibrium = “I don’t got this...” EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 Friday We worked on vignettes in groups. No lecture notes. I am a human, and I make mistakes. These notes are not comprehensive and do not tell you all of what the material has to offer. The purpose of these notes is to remind you of basic concepts and vocabulary Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 99114 Definitions are taken from the following source and cited parenthetically: Side note: For another section guide for chapter 3 section Chapter A. Section 2: The Cognitive Developmental View B. Section 3: The InformationProcessing View EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 a. selective attention: focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant (Santrock, p.102) b. divided attention: concentrating on more than one activity at the same time (Santrock, p.102) c. sustained attention: the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time (Santrock, p.102) d. executive attention: type of attention that involves planning actions, allocating attention to goals, detecting and compensating for errors, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances (Santrock, p.102) ii. Memory 1. memory: the retention of information over time (Santrock, p.102) 2. There are three important memory systems involved in adolescents’ learning: a. ShortTerm Memory: This type of memory holds information for about thirty seconds, and it can hold very little information at one time. b. Working Memory: Many psychologists prefer this term to shortterm memory because it better represents all of the memory work that takes place during this period, since the memory process is much more active and powerful. This part of memory is thought to increase greatly during adolescence. c. LongTerm Memory: This is the part of memory that holds most of an individual’s past memories and information. If an individual’s memory is undamaged, much of this information can be held for an individual’s entire life. c. executive function: an umbrellalike concept that involves higherorder, complex cognitive processes that include exercising cognitive control, making decisions, reasoning, thinking critically, thinking creatively, and metacognition (Santrock, p. 105) i. Cognitive Control 1. cognitive control: the capacity to control attention, reduce interfering thoughts, and be cognitively flexible (Santrock, p. 105) a. Cognitive control increases with age throughout childhood and adolescence. b. Students who, at a young age, show better cognitive control are more likely to be in school and less likely to be taking drugs in adolescence. 2. Control Attention and Reduce Interfering Thoughts: Different types of distractions and interfering thoughts can be things from the external environment, such as social media, or selforiented thoughts, such as worry or doubt. 3. Be Cognitively Flexible: If students feel confident in their abilities to adapt their thinking to different situations, it raises their cognitive flexibility, which involves being aware of other ways of thinking in a situation and adapting one’s thinking to the best way of thinking. ii. Decision Making 1. From childhood to adolescence, decisionmaking competence usually gets higher with age. 2. Most people make better decisions when calm than when they are greatly emotionally affected or stressed. 3. Social contexts also play a role in decisionmaking. This falls along the lines of all of your friends deciding to jump off of a bridge; this makes you EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 much more likely to make this decision than if none of your friends decided to jump off of a bridge. 4. One theory that has been proposed about how adolescents make decisions is the fuzzytrace theory dualprocess model: states that decision making is influenced by two systems—”verbatim” analytical thinking (literal and precise) and gistbased intuition (simple, bottomline meaning), which operate in parallel; in this model, it is the gistbased system that benefits adolescents’ decision making most (Santrock, p. 108). In risky situations, adolescents often get the gist of things and make decisions based on that, instead of getting all of the information. iii. critical thinking: thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence (Santrock, p. 108) 1. Mindfulness is described as being mentally alert while going through life. Some psychologists believe that mindfulness should be taught in schools. 2. Developmental Changes: some developmental changes that occur during adolescence include: a. increased speed and capacity of information processing b. greater breadth of content knowledge c. increased ability to construct new combinations of knowledge d. a greater range of strategies for obtaining/applying knowledge 3. Schools: a. Presenting students with controversial topics or articles and presenting both sides of an issue to discuss is one way to encourage students to think critically in schools. b. Many students are used to passive learning, or being told information instead of generating new ideas for themselves. This makes the process of teaching critical thinking more difficult for educators. iv. Creative Thinking 1. creativity: the ability to think in novel and unusual ways and discover unique solutions to problems (Santrock, p. 110) 2. One way to differ creativity and intelligence is to think of it in terms of two different types of thinking: a. convergent thinking: a pattern of thinking in which individuals produce one correct answer; characteristic of the items on conventional intelligence tests (Santrock, p. 110) b. divergent thinking: a pattern of thinking in which individuals produce many answers to the same question; more characteristic of creativity than convergent thinking (Santrock, p. 110) 3. Creative thinking seems to be declining in adolescents. This makes increasing student creativity an important goal for educations. Some strategies for this include: a. Brainstorming b. Creativitystimulating environments c. Not overcontrolling students d. Building confidence e. Encouraging internal motivation f. Building persistence and delaying gratification g. Encouraging intellectual risks h. Introducing students to creative people v. Expertise 1. Experts are better than novices at detecting meaningful patterns of information within a content area, accumulating content knowledge and EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 organizing it in an insightful way, and retrieving important aspects of knowledge within the content area with little effort. 2. One perspective claims that it takes deliberate practice combined with talent to differentiate between experts and novices. vi. Metacognition 1. What Is Metacognition? a. metacognition: cognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing” (Santrock, p. 112) b. This includes knowing which strategies to use in order to learn or solve problems, planning how much time to focus on a task, or selfmonitoring progress towards completion of a goal. 2. Strategies: Metacognition includes knowledge about strategies. Thinkers with good metacognition skills know when to use which strategies in order to complete a goal. vii. DomainSpecific Thinking Skills: Like metacognitive skills, domainspecific thinking skills can be taught. Domainspecific thinking skills in subjects such as writing, math, science, and history help teachers and students with the transfer of different types of information.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'