HDFS 311 Week 4 Notes
HDFS 311 Week 4 Notes HDFS 311
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 311 at Colorado State University taught by Jaime Marie Rotner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
- Social Cognition - Social Cognition- the way we think about other people, social relationships, and social institutions - Perspective taking- the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others • Selman’s research - Adolescent egocentrism- having difﬁculty distinguishing your own thinking about yourself from their thinking about the thoughts of others • Increase of self consciousness • rumination- take a thought, idea, or situation and just spin the wheel and continuously think about that, over thinking • having difﬁculty understanding that what they experience isn’t necessarily what the person next to them is going through Imaginary audience- thought process and belief that we are the focus of others, the belief • that others are acutely aware of the attentive to one’s appearance and behavior • Personal fable- belief that there must be something special, something unique about you— otherwise why would others be so preoccupied with you - These diminish over time but sometimes don’t completely go away - Optimistic Bias- the tendency to assume that accidents, diseases, and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves • Adolescents tend to have a stronger optimistic bias than adults Chapter 5- - Gender- refers to the social categories of male and female - Sex- refers to the biological status of being male or female - Traditional Cultures - From girl to women • Girls typically work alongside their mothers from an early age 6 or 7 • Girls typically maintain a close relationship with their mothers • During adolescence the “world contracts for girls” • Narrower socialization because budding sexuality is more likely to be tightly restricted - From boy to man • Boys typically have less contact with their families and more contact with peers During adolescence the “world expands for boys” • • Boys enjoy new privileges reserved for men which comes from being able to protect, provide, and procreate • For boys, manhood is something that has to be achieved - Gender In American History - From girl to women • 18th and 19th centuries had narrowly constricted occupational roles • Seen as fragile and innocent- biologically less capable of intellectual work and incapable of strenuous work • Virginity until marriage considered essential • Focus on physical appearance - Three Manhood Transformations - Communal Manhood (17 and 18 centuries) • The focus on preparing to assume adult role responsibilities in work and marriage - Self Made Manhood (19th century) • Males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emerging adulthood - Passionate Manhood (20th century) • Self expression and self enjoyment replaced self control and self denial as the paramount virtues - Gender Intensiﬁcation Hypothesis- Psychological and behavioral difference between genders become more pronounced at adolescence • Intensiﬁed socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed roles increase - Gender Socialization as Source of Problems - Stress on physical appearance for girls can cause… • Negative body image • Dieting • Eating disorders • Target of ridicule if they are overweight - Emphasis on aggression in the male role may make some boys the target of insults and humiliation • Can contribute to problem behaviors such as vandalism, risky drivers, ﬁghting and crime - Cognitive Development Theory of Gender - Gender is a fundamental way of organizing ideas about the world - Different age groups • Age 3-5— Understand themselves as being either male or female and identify things as appropriate for either males or females • Self Socialization- how kids at that age can recognize that they are their gender, boys would say I like playing with trucks and my favorite color is blue • Age 6-10— Perceptions of gender become less rigid • Age 12-16—Perceptions of gender become more rigid with gender intensiﬁcation - As adolescents become more capable of reﬂecting on these issues, they become more concerned with compliance to gender norms for themselves and others 1. m 2. f 3. f 4. f 5. m 6. f 7. f 8. f 9. m/f 10. f 11. f 12. m 13. m 14. f 15. m 16. m 17. f 18. m 19. m 20. f - Androgyny- term used for the combination of masculine and feminine traits in one person - Advocates point to research that shows: • Androgynous children are more ﬂexible and creative than other children • Androgynous women and men also have higher emotional intelligence • Highly feminine women have higher anxiety and lower self esteem - Advocates have argued that being androgynous provides greater repertoire of trait to draw on in their own daily lives - Gender Roles in American Minority Groups - African American Women • Female role contains a variety of characteristics due to challenging historical circumstances like self reliance, assertiveness, and perseverance • Have higher self esteem and are less concerned with physical appearance - African American Men • Have been frequently subjected to insults to their manhood also due to historical circumstances • Economic conditions in many American cities make it difﬁcult to ﬁll the traditional “provider” aspect of the male role • Young Black men may adopt extreme characteristics of the male role in order to declare masculinity • Alternate ideals of manhood have recently been provided • One school of thought- adopting extreme characteristics to compensate and ensure that they are seen as masculine, correlates with criminal behavior and emotional disconnect which effect romantic relationships
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