New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PBIO 1030 Week 5 Notes

by: Abbey Marshall

PBIO 1030 Week 5 Notes PBIO 1030

Marketplace > Ohio University > PBIO 1030 > PBIO 1030 Week 5 Notes
Abbey Marshall
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

clicker quiz, exam #2
Plants and People
Dr. Thompson
Class Notes
plant, Biology, enthobotany
25 ?




Popular in Plants and People

Popular in Department

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


Reviews for PBIO 1030 Week 5 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/18/16
PBIO 1030 Fall 2016 Week 5 Notes [Readings posted to Blackboard on Herbivory & Plant Toxins (Monday), Plant Secretions (Wednesday), and Poisonous Plants (Friday). BLOG note: We will be meeting on Monday to discuss the Blog Assignment. Bring your ideas about what national park you would like to use for your blog. Your group will make a final decision in class. Monday, September 19, 2016 (Herbivory & Plant Toxins) 1. Describe how plants respond to or protect themselves from herbivory, listing examples and distinguishing between mechanical and chemical defenses (see also: herbivores-v-plants.cfm)  Mechanical defenses: take the form of physical structures or movements o Thorns, spines, and hairs  blackberries/raspberries o Waxes and saps  beetles slip and fall on waxy leaves o Defensive and offensive movements  Venus flytrap makes rapid movements  Folding quickly to decrease the surface area available to potential pests  Chemical defenses: production of chemical defenses, sometimes called secondary compounds that make the plant toxic, reduce palatability or reduce its digestibility so as to lessen its value to the herbivore o Cyanogenic glycosides: when consumed by herbivores, these molecules break down into cyanide, killing or seriously harming the animal o Neurotoxic chemicals: in hemlock o Monarchs and milkweeds: makes butterflies toxic to predators o Nicotine: stimulates release of both acetylcholine and epinephrine  Kills cells in animals  Stimulates neurotransmission at cholinergic receptors  Nicotine is not rapidly deactivated by enzymes  Prevents incoming impulses  Eventually blocks sensory receptors (skin and tongue)  Acute cases: tremors, convulsions, death 2. Describe how plant secondary chemical compounds (secondary metabolites) are used by human cultures and how they sometimes benefit other herbivores.  Medicines o A lot of medicines come from compounds isolated from plants o Cardiac glycosides (digitalis comes from Dead Men’s Bells)  Digitalis is the most common cause of death in hospitals (used in medicine, but very potent)  Spices o Mustard, for example, get their flavor from secondary plant compounds that may make the plant toxic to an insect but are not toxic to humans  Mint o Repels insects, but we use peppermint, etc. 3. Predict how some of these plant strategies benefit humans. 
  See above 4. Explain why plants produce tannins and how tannins have been important to people.  Tannins: complex chemical substances derived from tannic acid o Large molecules that bind readily with proteins, cellulose, starches, and minerals o Resulting substances are insoluble and resistant to decomposition o Deters herbivores o Helps stop decomposition from bacteria and fungi o Found in bark, wood, leaves, buds, stems, fruits, seeds, roots, and plant galls o Tannins stored in the bark of trees protect the tree from being infected by bacteria or fungi  Examples: o Cranberries o Grape seeds o Grape skins o Oak  Human uses: o Different colors, textures, and durability of leathers using different formulations of plant tannins (tanning liqueurs) o Medicine and human health  Tannings are astringents that tighten pores and pull out liquids o Tea, coffee, red wine, beer Wednesday, September 21, 2016 (Plant Secretions) 1. Name the broad group of plants which produce latexes. Explain the meaning behind the English term, rubber, and describe how this plant product has been used throughout history.  Latex: any mixture of organic compounds produced in laticifers o Ficus:  Soap, but can be an irritant  Medicinal use (warts, purgative, vermifuge, sore throats) but it’s risky  Occupational hazard for pickers  Cheese making  Tenderizing meat (enzymes break down proteins)  Laticifers: single cell or string of cells that form tubes, canals, or networks in various plant organs o not know to gymnosperms but occur sporadically throughout the angiosperms (flowering plant)  Rubber: a name given Sir Joseph Priestley to hevea latex in 1770 when he discovered that it could be used for rubbing out writing out writing errors from a page 2. Describe the innovations that made Hevea rubber more useful. 
  “blood of the tree”  “Olmec” means “rubber people” in an Aztec language: people who used rubber balls  Ancient Mayans played ball as well  Aztecs played a vigorous game using rubber balls and symbolic figurines  Aztecs used it for offerings  Indigenous people coated feet with sap  In 1823, Charles Macintosh discovered that hevea rubber is soluble in hexane o Led to new uses because coagulated latex could be shipped, redissolved, and then applied to specific substances under controlled industrial conditions  In 1839, Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization, the cross- linking of rubber’s isoprene molecules caused by the addition of sulfur with lead oxide o Makes latex impervious to weather and improves its elasticity  In 1876, seeds from a highly productive population of hevea known to produce large of latex were taken from Kew Garden in London and from there to Asia were free of the fungus, and by the turn of the century, rubber production in the Old World began to rival that in South America o Amazon forest  By World War II, 90 percent of the world’s natural rubber was collected from Asian plantations  World War II, fighting operations effectively cut off the supply of rubber to the United States  Synthetic substitutes were then used  After 1970, the demand for natural rubber rebounded as the production of tires increases o More than 2/3 of all rubber go to the manufacture of tires 3. Explain how native South Americans contributed to rubber collection and discuss the effects that industrialization and war had on this industry.  Brazilian Amazonians to make a rubber ball: o Dip paddle in Havea latex; put it over the smoke from a fire of palm nuts  Sometimes latex from a vine is tapped and added 4. Describe an alternate plant source of rubber. 
  Guayule is a shrub native to the Chihuahuan Desert of southwestern Texas o Was not used as source of latex by native peoples 5. Explain why the latex, chicle, was first brought to the US and for what commercial product it is most useful. 
  First brought to America by Mexican President Santa Anna in the 1800s, when he was convinced to ship 2 tons to America for rubber purposes o Santa Anna said his people used it for gum o Thomas Adams used chicle and sweetened it to make chewing gum  Chicle is best used for chewing gum. 6. Explain why plants produce resins and name some uses for humans. 
  Some deter herbivores for plants  Anti-microbial properties  Preserves insects, etc. through fossilized resin  Human uses: o Incense for religious services o Caulking for ships o Embalming (fill with resin to keep the body hard) o Adhesive paints Friday, September 23, 2016 (Poisonous Plants) 1. Describe the uses that poisonous plants have for people and for the plants that produce them. 
  Makes them undesirable to herbivores  Uses for people: o Medicinal purposes o Surgery o Kill people/animals o Insecticide 2. Describe the effects of strychnine and curare and explain how each of them they are used. 
  Strychnine: an alkaloid obtained commercially from the seeds of the Asian-Indian tree Strychnos nux-vomica (Loganiaceae) o Stimulant of the central nervous system, especially the spinal cord o Induces muscle spasms and convulsions o Magnifies sensations o Can trigger seizures o Used for a variety of ailments traditionally  Constipation  Impotence  Barbiturate poisoning o Medical use today continued to neurologic research o Used illegally to enhance athletic performance o Used for poison for rodents o Nux vomica: very diluted, used as medicine for people who have headaches/vomits from overworking, partying too hard, etc. o History:  Prepared for respiratory, digestive, and circulatory supportives  Highly poisonous, has been mistake for cocaine  1904 Olympics in St. Louis, first Olympics in US, World Fair: Tom Hicks given strychnine for athletic performance, given three doses and taken to hospital after winning  Curare: the arrow poison employed by South American tribes in hunting game o “Flying death” o Mixture of toxic plants o When injected, causes muscle paralysis and rapid death o Strength gauged on effect:  One-tree curare (stronger)  Three-tree curare o Blocks nerve impulses at the junction of nerve and muscle o Produces immediate muscle relaxation by blocking nerve impulses o Has value in the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy, polio, etc. o Physostigmine (from Calabar bean) is an antidote to curare o At one time used for treatment for rabies and tetanus o Used for surgery  muscle relaxation used with anesthetic  artificial respiration required o Charles Waterton’s experiments with donkeys  Donkey 1: Curare killed donkey  Donkey 2: Curare injected with tourniquet, lived until tourniquet was taken off and then she died  Donkey 3: Died, revived artificially ventilation, relaxation of muscles involved in respiration  Confirmed asphyxia confirmed as cause of death 3. Name the most poisonous wild plant in North America and describe the features that would allow you to identify (and avoid) it. 
  Poison hemlock and water hemlock o Large, perennial herbs with big, white, compound umbels and pinnately compound leaves o All parts of hemlock are poisonous o Causes paralysis o Water hemlock contain both male and female parts on this flower: monoecious  Umbel: an inflorescence which consists of a number of short flower stalks (called pedicels) which spread from a common point, somewhat like umbrella ribs. 4. Name the source of ricin and describe its effects if seeds are swallowed. Explain why there is concern over its potential use in bioterrorism.  Found in castor beans, most concentrated in the seeds  Inhibits protein synthesis in the intestinal wall and causes the clumping of red blood cells  Most deadly natural poison known  Symptoms do not develop until several hours or even days after the seeds are eaten  Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and burning of the mouth and throat are the first symptoms to appear  Kidney failure  Can kill people very easily, therefore concern for bioterrorism o 23 arrests since 2010 for ricin use; 65 arrests due to ricin threats o 4 members of N. Georgia militia plotted to bomb federal buildings and city of Atlanta with ricin o 2013 investigation of letters with ricin sent to government officials 5. Describe the effects of two houseplants that are most commonly the subject of calls to poison control centers. 
  Children ingesting aroids (Araceae). Two most frequently cited: o Philodendron  Vines or erect plants, heart shaped or dissected leaves o Dumbcane  Speckled leaves on a moderately stout, erect stem o Both contain crystal needles of calcium oxalate. If swallowed, these crystals cause painful burning and swelling of the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.