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week 2 notes

by: Nisha Bhakta
Nisha Bhakta
GPA 3.61

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About this Document

These are note for chapter 2.
Gender, Crime, and Criminal Justice
Joanna Pearson
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nisha Bhakta on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to crj 305 at Arizona State University taught by Joanna Pearson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Gender, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Crj 305- Gender, Crime, and Criminal Justice Chapter 2 – A Critique of Mainstream/ “malestream” Theories (September 1, 2016)  Original and Positivist (Biology driven theories) o Cesare Lombroso  Atavistic Female Offender  Atavism - Views some deviant behavior as a “throwback” to an earlier evolutionary stage in human development and that Deviants are less highly evolved than normal law abiding citizens  Women are either Madonna or Whore (there are only great women or really bad women. Nothing in-between) o Sigmund Freud  Anatomy as destiny  Women are anatomically inferior to men  The deviant woman is the woman that wants to be man o 4 assumptions  Individual characteristics are responsible for criminal behavior  Identifiable biological nature inherent in all women  Offending women are masculine and incompetent women  Differences between male and female criminality are due to sex  Strain Theory (girls are blocked by society from doing things.) o Robert Merton  Views some deviant behavior as a “throwback” to an earlier evolutionary stage in human development  Deviants are less highly evolved than normal law abiding citizens o Traditional strain theory  Blocked opportunity can be related to boys’ and girls’ delinquency rates  Differential Association Theory o Criminal Behavior is learned o Feminist research application  Girls experience many constraints = lower crime rate  Different socialization of girls and boys  Increased rates of delinquency = girls having more freedom  Labeling theory (criminal are usually minority, male, and usually African American)  Social Control Theories (hangout with good people you will be good. Hangout with bad people you will be bad) o Social bond Theory- if you surround yourself with good people you will be a good person. If you go to a job or school everyday it is good. o General theory of crime  Low self-control is an individual-level attribute that causes crime at all ages when combined with appropriate opportunities and attractive targets o Power control theory  Marxist theory = Conflict theory  Radical theory  Critical legal studies o Critical race theory- Recognizing and accounting for White privilege and power are core to understanding racism in the systemic discrimination and civil rights violations of people of color  Women’s Liberation/ Emancipation Hypothesis o Because women have more power they can commit more crime


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