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Week 5 Notes

by: Katie Lebow

Week 5 Notes GIS3015

Katie Lebow
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About this Document

I'm working on this note set still, and I apologize for the delay in getting the information up... It's been a very very busy few weeks, but I will continue updating the notes as I can :)
Map Analysis
Gregory Burris
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Lebow on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GIS3015 at Florida State University taught by Gregory Burris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Week 5 Notes: Projection, Symbols, and Points 1. Projection A. The Earth being a "spheroid" (Sphere-like) causes a problem with projection mapping because of the "orange peel problem" a. Because the Earth is a 3D object, distortion occurs when trying to flatten it onto a 2D surface B. Geodesy is the science of determining the size/shape of Earth a.Earth is not a perfect sphere: 1.Polar Axis is approximately 6,357km 2.Equatorial Axis is approximately 6,378km b.Earth is also not a perfect spheroid c. The North pole is closer to the equator than the South pole is to the equator d. Earth is more of a Geoid if you consider gravity e. Differing results from various surveys have resulted in lots of different models of the Earth's shape 1. Satellite measurements produce more accurate modeling of the Earth as an ellipsoid C. Geographic Coordinate System a.Defines locations by using a 3D spherical surface b.Parallels: Lines of latitude c.Meridians: Lines of longitude d.Graticular Network: Both latitude and longitude lines interacting in the same sphere model D. Map Projections a. Distortion: 1. Shape 2. Area b. We can think of the distortion as a light bulb in the center of the Earth, with the light shining outward…. The further away from the light, the farther the distortion c. Cylindrical Projections: Projecting a sphere (the Earth) onto a cylinder 1. Preserves shape & direction; distorts area & distance 2. Normal 3. Transverse 4. Oblique 5. Peter’s Projection: Used for politics d. Azimuthal Projections: Projection onto a flat surface 1. Local areas and GIS 2. Preserves area & distance; distorts shape & direction 3. Polar 4. Equatorial 5. Oblique e. All Projections are distorted because a 3D object is being projected on a 2D plane 1. The only “true” projection is a 3D model… This is difficult to represent on paper or a digital map (cell phones, laptops, etc.) 2. We can minimize distortion using certain maps to preserve certain aspects in a projection a. Shape & Direction: Cylindrical and Conformal b. Area & Distance: Azimuthal c. RARELY Shape & Area: Goode’s comes closest d. RARELY Direction & Distance f. The Mercator Projection (Cylindrical) 1. Used for navigation 2. Greenland is 4x smaller in square miles than China, yet looks extremely large in a Mercator Map because of the area and distance distortion 2. Map Symbols A.


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