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Western Civilization 1 Week 4 Notes

by: Emily Lefeber

Western Civilization 1 Week 4 Notes HIST:1401

Marketplace > University of Iowa > History > HIST:1401 > Western Civilization 1 Week 4 Notes
Emily Lefeber

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About this Document

These notes cover the Minoans, Mycenaeans, Neo-Babylonians and Neo-Assyrians, and The Persian Empire. These notes were taken September 13 and 15, 2016 in Lecture
Western Civilization 1
Dr. Rosemary Moore
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lefeber on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST:1401 at University of Iowa taught by Dr. Rosemary Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization 1 in History at University of Iowa.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 The Minoans (2200 – 1400 BC)  Independent states throughout Aegean  Unknown but they probably aren’t Greek  o Can’t be determined until Linear A is translated o Their government and economy strongly influence the Mycenaeans (Who were  Greek) nd  The Minoans in the 2  Millennium BCE o Palace economy  Storage for trade, tablets with records, writing  Amphora­ huge pottery (jars) used for storing things (ex Olive Oil) o Trading network with other great powers in the region  Minoan craftsmen worked in Hyksos palace at Avaris (Egyptian Palace)  Fresco – paint applied to wet plaster  Knossos – Minoan palace  Leaping Bull scenes – common work in Minoan art. o Significance of Bull? Religious? Royal? o Sport? Religious ritual? Why all men? Representation? o Legend of Minotaur – Greek legend o Historical? Mythology? The Mycenaean (1800 – 1000 BC)  “Ahhiyawa” = “Achaeans” (attested in Homer)  Greek o Linear B script  Syllabary – symbol represents syllable rather than individual letters o They absorb many practices from the Minoans (and, by extension, Egypt and the  ANE)  Palace economy  Trade networking  Independent states, first on mainland Greece, then Aegean islands  Minoan Palaces are taken over by the Mycenaean o By 1400 BC, they control many Minoan centers  Similar art style to Minoans o Style is similar but content is not  Chariots, horses, prestige  Swords  Minoans were also employed to create Mycenaean artwork  Differences from the Minoans o Palaces are far more heavily fortified o Warrior culture more evident Dark Age Greece  Mycenaean culture collapses by 1200 BC o Palaces abandoned, massive destruction, signs of loss of wealth, possible  earthquakes, evidence of revolt, loss of culture/writing  The Trojan War  C. 1100 – 750 BC = The Dark Age o Lack of literary evidence and documentation o Loss of writing o Substantial population decrease Assyria and the Neo­Babylonians  Assyria – the major “great power” to remain a “great power” in the first millennium BC o Characteristics: o Religion justifies political power as well as conquest  Name comes from Ashur­ major God  Ashur accompanies Assyrian military in battles o Forced mass movements and harsh treatment of conquered people  Forced labor to serve Assyrian, punitive levels of tribute in you don’t  move with the mass movements  Mass labor needed to build castles and monuments  The periphery enriches the cone; displays of wealth and power drive  further conquest and rebellions  Neo­Babylonia o Establishes its empire after rebelling against Assyria  They see themselves as the preservers of Sumer culture o Continues forced movements  the labor is used for construction, as well as to separate the ruling class  from its home territory o Preservation of Babylonian culture o Intellectual and artistic achievements o Lion Hunts  Kings used them to show their masculinity, power, and bravery  Hunting, Warfare, Personal Courage o Chaldeans – name for Neo­Babylonians used by Greeks and Romans and in Bible o Hanging Gardens of Babylon – one of the 7 wonders of the Ancient World Persian Empire  Strong Horsemen and Archers – known for warfare   Closely connected to the Medes th o Not prominent prior to the 7  century  Cyrus the Great (560­530 BC) o Founder of the Persian Empire o Conquest of the Medes by 560 BC o And the Neo­Babylonians by 539 BC o He extends Persian territory through Asia Minor and much of the rest of the  ancient Near East  His conquest of Croesus of Lydia (central Asia Minor) brings the Persians  to the attention of the Greeks  Why was Cyrus so successful? o Persians, Medes, and Elamites were known as good soldiers  The “immortals” – always at 10,000 in manpower o Elective military recruitment  Incorporates conquered people into his (Cyrus’) army  Conquests provide more manpower  Expanded resources allow hiring of mercenaries o Elective Administration  Government is mainly Persian aristocracy  Far less heavy handed than Assyrian rulers  Local government and Persian government  Semi­autonomous communities governed by locals  Overall administration run by Persians o Satraps and Satrapies o Cyrus deliberately adopts the ways of those he conquered  What happens to Cambyses? o Darius, not  closely related to Cyrus makes himself king o Darius  Reinforces administration in places conquered  Continues to expand  Western India  The Greek Islands and Mainland o The King and Ahuramazda  As with Assur, the king acts for god but is human  Ahuramazda’s concern is wisdom and justice o Zoroastrianism  Monotheistic originally  Strongly concerned with light and the struggle between good and evil  King is not divine but only a representative of divine power Israel  Early history is very difficult o Dating problems of the books and of events  The books were written ca. 600 years after the events the depict  Literal dating of Exodus does not fit what we known about Egypt about  that point in time o The relevant books of the Old Testament have a purpose other than historical  narrative  They reflect and justify the special covenant between Israel and Yahweh  The composition of these books is problematic  These books seem to have been derived from others  Multiple authors  Few mentions of outside sources  Their influence throughout Western Vic is great 


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