Western Civilization 1 Week 4 Notes
Western Civilization 1 Week 4 Notes HIST:1401
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lefeber on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST:1401 at University of Iowa taught by Dr. Rosemary Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization 1 in History at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 The Minoans (2200 – 1400 BC) Independent states throughout Aegean Unknown but they probably aren’t Greek o Can’t be determined until Linear A is translated o Their government and economy strongly influence the Mycenaeans (Who were Greek) nd The Minoans in the 2 Millennium BCE o Palace economy Storage for trade, tablets with records, writing Amphora huge pottery (jars) used for storing things (ex Olive Oil) o Trading network with other great powers in the region Minoan craftsmen worked in Hyksos palace at Avaris (Egyptian Palace) Fresco – paint applied to wet plaster Knossos – Minoan palace Leaping Bull scenes – common work in Minoan art. o Significance of Bull? Religious? Royal? o Sport? Religious ritual? Why all men? Representation? o Legend of Minotaur – Greek legend o Historical? Mythology? The Mycenaean (1800 – 1000 BC) “Ahhiyawa” = “Achaeans” (attested in Homer) Greek o Linear B script Syllabary – symbol represents syllable rather than individual letters o They absorb many practices from the Minoans (and, by extension, Egypt and the ANE) Palace economy Trade networking Independent states, first on mainland Greece, then Aegean islands Minoan Palaces are taken over by the Mycenaean o By 1400 BC, they control many Minoan centers Similar art style to Minoans o Style is similar but content is not Chariots, horses, prestige Swords Minoans were also employed to create Mycenaean artwork Differences from the Minoans o Palaces are far more heavily fortified o Warrior culture more evident Dark Age Greece Mycenaean culture collapses by 1200 BC o Palaces abandoned, massive destruction, signs of loss of wealth, possible earthquakes, evidence of revolt, loss of culture/writing The Trojan War C. 1100 – 750 BC = The Dark Age o Lack of literary evidence and documentation o Loss of writing o Substantial population decrease Assyria and the NeoBabylonians Assyria – the major “great power” to remain a “great power” in the first millennium BC o Characteristics: o Religion justifies political power as well as conquest Name comes from Ashur major God Ashur accompanies Assyrian military in battles o Forced mass movements and harsh treatment of conquered people Forced labor to serve Assyrian, punitive levels of tribute in you don’t move with the mass movements Mass labor needed to build castles and monuments The periphery enriches the cone; displays of wealth and power drive further conquest and rebellions NeoBabylonia o Establishes its empire after rebelling against Assyria They see themselves as the preservers of Sumer culture o Continues forced movements the labor is used for construction, as well as to separate the ruling class from its home territory o Preservation of Babylonian culture o Intellectual and artistic achievements o Lion Hunts Kings used them to show their masculinity, power, and bravery Hunting, Warfare, Personal Courage o Chaldeans – name for NeoBabylonians used by Greeks and Romans and in Bible o Hanging Gardens of Babylon – one of the 7 wonders of the Ancient World Persian Empire Strong Horsemen and Archers – known for warfare Closely connected to the Medes th o Not prominent prior to the 7 century Cyrus the Great (560530 BC) o Founder of the Persian Empire o Conquest of the Medes by 560 BC o And the NeoBabylonians by 539 BC o He extends Persian territory through Asia Minor and much of the rest of the ancient Near East His conquest of Croesus of Lydia (central Asia Minor) brings the Persians to the attention of the Greeks Why was Cyrus so successful? o Persians, Medes, and Elamites were known as good soldiers The “immortals” – always at 10,000 in manpower o Elective military recruitment Incorporates conquered people into his (Cyrus’) army Conquests provide more manpower Expanded resources allow hiring of mercenaries o Elective Administration Government is mainly Persian aristocracy Far less heavy handed than Assyrian rulers Local government and Persian government Semiautonomous communities governed by locals Overall administration run by Persians o Satraps and Satrapies o Cyrus deliberately adopts the ways of those he conquered What happens to Cambyses? o Darius, not closely related to Cyrus makes himself king o Darius Reinforces administration in places conquered Continues to expand Western India The Greek Islands and Mainland o The King and Ahuramazda As with Assur, the king acts for god but is human Ahuramazda’s concern is wisdom and justice o Zoroastrianism Monotheistic originally Strongly concerned with light and the struggle between good and evil King is not divine but only a representative of divine power Israel Early history is very difficult o Dating problems of the books and of events The books were written ca. 600 years after the events the depict Literal dating of Exodus does not fit what we known about Egypt about that point in time o The relevant books of the Old Testament have a purpose other than historical narrative They reflect and justify the special covenant between Israel and Yahweh The composition of these books is problematic These books seem to have been derived from others Multiple authors Few mentions of outside sources Their influence throughout Western Vic is great
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