Western Civilization 1 Week 3 Notes
Western Civilization 1 Week 3 Notes HIST:1401
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lefeber on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST:1401 at University of Iowa taught by Dr. Rosemary Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization 1 in History at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 and Thursday, September 8, 2016 Egypt – “The gift of the Nile” Nile floods twice a year and coincides with growing patterns. Flooding brings fertile soil to Egypt and provides food. Agriculture is relatively easy for Egyptian settlers because of regularity of Nile flooding Cataract waterfalls Delta where the water splits off Egypt settled in fairly protected area surrounded by desert and the Nile was hard to navigate Egypt Religion and Kingship Pharaoh – Egyptian “per’aa” = great house o Devine leader o Incarnation of God, Horus (usually portrayed as hawk), in mortal form (other associations may be made) Ra = Sun God o Different from Mesopotamian leaders because they were Gods, not humans o Reflects redistributive economy The Pharaoh is an intermediary for the human world to the divine world o Horus provides: Protection (from outside forces) Justice (dualism ex. the pharaoh provides protection order against chaos, the pharaoh provides light against dark) Assurance of prosperity (associated with agricultural prosperity) His special status as Pharaoh is protected in life and after death. o Lotus plants represent eternal life and water The Predynastic Period Egypt divided into periods of unity o Old Kingdom o First Intermediary Period o Middle Kingdom o Second Intermediary Period o New Kingdom Predynastic Period predates these periods 3300 BCE – 2700 BCE Egyptian civilization appears in Upper Egypt (south) The Kingdoms reflect unification of Upper and Lower Egypt Abydos is first Egyptian settlement o There are early cemeteries of powerful men o Much of symbology used by Pharaohs appears here first Horus Crowns of upper and lower Egypt Use of boats Pharaoh = Bull The Old Kingdom Dynasties 3 – 6 (ca. 2686 – 2181 BC) Era of the Pyramids o Purpose – tombs for the Pharaohs o Their exact significance is debated especially why they became so large Why this shape? Location? Size? The Pyramids are the largest manmade stone structures in the world when they are built o Copper tools used to quarry the limestone used for the building Because pyramids were tombs and seen to have sacred powers they had to be completed by the Pharaoh’s death o Who build them? Conscript (corvee) labor not slaves Temporary but mandatory service to state Pyramids of the Giza Plateau o Khufu is largest o Khafre is second largest Khafre is also responsible for Sphynx o Mankaure is smallest o Smaller pyramids built for patrons and officials o At the time of construction, the limestone would have been white and “gleaming” Could reflect the Pharaoh’s divine journey o Ma ‘At – sense of justice based on who we are in our lives Used to judge the soul before going to the afterlife New Kingdom Organized Hierarchically o Pharaoh at the top o Upper Class – Nobles (officials who work with Pharaohs) and Priests o Merchants and Artisans Trade o Lower Class = Serfs Agricultural workers / farmers Majority of population Tax payers Military service – labor force Family and Society o Men run the household o Patriarchal o In general, women hold an honored place within it They can control their own property – gives independence Responsible for education of children They can divorce o Hatshepsut Female “Pharaoh” She was daughter of Tuthmosis, married her brother, Tuthmois II, and her son, was Tuthmosis, III She acted as “regent” which means she wasn’t actually Pharaoh she acted as Pharaoh when her son Tuthmosis III was young Unusual she adopts the regalia/symbology associated with male power Tuthmosis III reasserts his power and has many of her monuments and inscriptions defaced after death He basically “erased” her o The Egyptian “imperial” period 15001200 BC Its political control is greatest during this period Nubia to the south past the second cataract of the Nile Much of the Levant (modern day Israel, Syria) Therefore, far more regular contact with outsiders Previous outsider rule (the Hyksos) had revolutionized Egyptian technologies o Bronze o Horsedrawn chariots Horses domesticated north of Akkadia o Compound bow – more powerful, more force, distance Trade o Dyes imported to Egypt o o A religious and political revolution Amenhotep IV (1364 – 1347 BC) = Akhenaten Replacement of all previously worshipped gods by one god – Aten (the Sun disk) o Egyptian religion recognized the Sun as a powerful god o Ra is typically associated with the Sun and the Pharaoh o Aten was seen as a god but of a very specific sense of the Sun o Aten chosen as life giving sun god o Akhenaten prohibits worship of gods other than Aten With this, a new capital city, Amarna (Akhenaten) is built o Akhenaten moved his new city to division between Upper and Lower Egypt – Newly built city is abandoned after his death Art style is very different during this period – new proportions and portrayals of the body and more naturalistic and flowing features – new style abandoned after Akhenaten’s death The old gods and ways come back after Akhenaten’s death New religion did not stick Tutankhamen reverses religion change Akhenaten’s image is also erased The Ramessid Dynasty o Continued diplomacy and warfare in the Levant o Control of territory is shrinking More difficulties with enemies in the Levant and Nubia o Especially the Hittites – Battle od Kadesh 1274 BC First Battle described in detail ever recorded also source of propaganda Described by Pharaoh as victory, but it was more like a draw/ winner is unclear Largest battle known in this point in history – 5,000 – 6,000 Chariots Wellknown for its spectacular art and monuments Abu Simbel 2 temples commemorating Ramses II’s victory at Kadesh Extensions of the temple of AmunRa at Karnak o Truth value of Egyptian records in unclear o Egypt is weakened significantly by the incursion of the “Sea Peoples” Who these people were and why they invaded are unknown The Minoans 22001400 BC Apparently independent states throughout the Aegean Island based people (near Greece) Major palaces on islands with trading and redistributive system Unknown is these people were united or divided o Until their writing (Linear A) is deciphered, we cannot know o Their government and economy strongly influenced the Mycenaean’s (who were Greek)
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