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Western Civilization 1 Week 3 Notes

by: Emily Lefeber

Western Civilization 1 Week 3 Notes HIST:1401

Marketplace > University of Iowa > History > HIST:1401 > Western Civilization 1 Week 3 Notes
Emily Lefeber

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These notes cover Ancient Egypt and briefly talks about the Minoans. These notes were taken September 6 and 8, 2016 in Lecture
Western Civilization 1
Dr. Rosemary Moore
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lefeber on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST:1401 at University of Iowa taught by Dr. Rosemary Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization 1 in History at University of Iowa.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 and Thursday, September 8, 2016 Egypt – “The gift of the Nile” Nile­ floods twice a year and coincides with growing patterns. Flooding brings fertile soil to  Egypt and provides food. Agriculture is relatively easy for Egyptian settlers because of regularity of Nile flooding Cataract­ waterfalls Delta­ where the water splits off Egypt settled in fairly protected area­ surrounded by desert and the Nile was hard to navigate Egypt Religion and Kingship  Pharaoh – Egyptian “per’aa” = great house o Devine leader o Incarnation of God, Horus (usually portrayed as hawk), in mortal form (other  associations may be made)  Ra = Sun God o Different from Mesopotamian leaders because they were Gods, not humans o Reflects redistributive economy  The Pharaoh is an intermediary for the human world to the divine world o Horus provides:  Protection (from outside forces)  Justice (dualism­ ex. the pharaoh provides protection order against chaos,  the pharaoh provides light against dark)  Assurance of prosperity (associated with agricultural prosperity)  His special status as Pharaoh is protected in life and after death. o Lotus plants­ represent eternal life and water The Pre­dynastic Period  Egypt divided into periods of unity o Old Kingdom o First Intermediary Period o Middle Kingdom o Second Intermediary Period o New Kingdom  Pre­dynastic Period predates these periods 3300 BCE – 2700 BCE  Egyptian civilization appears in Upper Egypt (south)  The Kingdoms reflect unification of Upper and Lower Egypt  Abydos is first Egyptian settlement o There are early cemeteries of powerful men o Much of symbology used by Pharaohs appears here first  Horus  Crowns of upper and lower Egypt  Use of boats  Pharaoh = Bull The Old Kingdom  Dynasties 3 – 6 (ca. 2686 – 2181 BC)  Era of the Pyramids o Purpose – tombs for the Pharaohs o Their exact significance is debated­ especially why they became so large  Why this shape? Location? Size?  The Pyramids are the largest manmade stone structures in the world when they are built o Copper tools used to quarry the limestone used for the building  Because pyramids were tombs and seen to have sacred powers they had to be completed  by the Pharaoh’s death o Who build them? Conscript (corvee) labor­ not slaves­ Temporary but mandatory  service to state  Pyramids of the Giza Plateau o Khufu is largest o Khafre is second largest­ Khafre is also responsible for Sphynx  o Mankaure is smallest o Smaller pyramids built for patrons and officials o At the time of construction, the limestone would have been white and “gleaming”  Could reflect the Pharaoh’s divine journey o Ma ‘At – sense of justice based on who we are in our lives   Used to judge the soul before going to the afterlife  New Kingdom  Organized Hierarchically o Pharaoh at the top o Upper Class – Nobles (officials who work with Pharaohs) and Priests o Merchants and Artisans  Trade o Lower Class = Serfs  Agricultural workers / farmers  Majority of population  Tax payers  Military service – labor force  Family and Society o Men run the household o Patriarchal o In general, women hold an honored place within it  They can control their own property – gives independence  Responsible for education of children  They can divorce o Hatshepsut   Female “Pharaoh”  She was daughter of Tuthmosis, married her brother, Tuthmois II, and her  son, was Tuthmosis, III  She acted as “regent” which means she wasn’t actually Pharaoh­ she acted as Pharaoh when her son Tuthmosis III was young  Unusual­ she adopts the regalia/symbology associated with male power   Tuthmosis III reasserts his power and has many of her monuments and  inscriptions defaced after death  He basically “erased” her o The Egyptian “imperial” period 1500­1200 BC  Its political control is greatest during this period  Nubia to the south­ past the second cataract of the Nile  Much of the Levant (modern day Israel, Syria)  Therefore, far more regular contact with outsiders   Previous outsider rule (the Hyksos) had revolutionized Egyptian  technologies o Bronze o Horse­drawn chariots  Horses domesticated north of Akkadia o Compound bow – more powerful, more force, distance  Trade o Dyes imported to Egypt o o A religious and political revolution  Amenhotep IV (1364 – 1347 BC) = Akhenaten  Replacement of all previously worshipped gods by one god – Aten (the  Sun disk) o Egyptian religion recognized the Sun as a powerful god o Ra is typically associated with the Sun and the Pharaoh o Aten was seen as a god­ but of a very specific sense of the  Sun o Aten chosen as life giving sun god o Akhenaten prohibits worship of gods other than Aten  With this, a new capital city, Amarna (Akhenaten) is built o Akhenaten moved his new city to division between Upper  and Lower Egypt – Newly built city is abandoned after his  death  Art style is very different during this period – new proportions and  portrayals of the body and more naturalistic and flowing features –  new style abandoned after Akhenaten’s death  The old gods and ways come back after Akhenaten’s death  New religion did not stick­ Tutankhamen reverses religion change  Akhenaten’s image is also erased  The Ramessid Dynasty o Continued diplomacy and warfare in the Levant o Control of territory is shrinking  More difficulties with enemies in the Levant and Nubia o Especially the Hittites – Battle od Kadesh 1274 BC  First Battle described in detail ever recorded­ also source of propaganda  Described by Pharaoh as victory, but it was more like a draw/ winner is  unclear  Largest battle known in this point in history – 5,000 – 6,000 Chariots  Well­known for its spectacular art and monuments  Abu Simbel­ 2 temples commemorating Ramses II’s victory at  Kadesh  Extensions of the temple of Amun­Ra at Karnak o Truth value of Egyptian records in unclear o Egypt is weakened significantly by the incursion of the “Sea Peoples”  Who these people were and why they invaded are unknown The Minoans 2200­1400 BC  Apparently independent states throughout the Aegean  Island based people (near Greece)  Major palaces on islands with trading and redistributive system  Unknown is these people were united or divided o Until their writing (Linear A) is deciphered, we cannot know o Their government and economy strongly influenced the Mycenaean’s (who were  Greek) 


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