SMAD 101, Week 3 Notes
SMAD 101, Week 3 Notes SMAD 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Smith on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
DAY 7: Media Bias: Print vs. Electric. ● Print Bias coincides with issues of the first amendment. That law was made so that opinions and facts could both be publically addressed. A Newspapers “OPEd” page delivers an opinionated viewpoint that is otherwise factual. ● Electronic Bias in Film will have the most to do with the program creators and directors, i.e. subject matter, and the backers behind the ideals. Examples of biased or controversial backers are Mel Gibson and Michael Moore. In Television time on air to voice an opinion can be easily bought. Blogs are almost entirely opinionated but can be factual. Broadcast Media is monitored so that the news is determined to be factual, Cable however does not have to be completely opinionated. Main Stream Media is biased, but that is a good thing. Large segments of the audience want slanted or opinionated news. They want reinforcement of opinion. Advertisers gain from knowing the bases of the media’s audience. The system works because both conservatives and liberals have media outlets. Main Stream Media is biased and that's a bad thing. The system puts pressure on consumers to seek all perspectives. The audience lack the skills in critically analyzing messages. The audience lacks an understanding of media bias to construct independent conclusions. University of Maryland and Fairleigh Dickinson University conducted a 2011 study, that showed that those who watch FOX news are less likely to know about the Middle East violence than those who don't watch the news. Media Effects ● Presumed cause and presumed effect must covary ● Presumed cause must precede the presumed effect, in time. ● Rival causes and explanations for these causes must be controlled for and/or eliminated. However, if a person wanted to test a theory, there must be a control and experimental group so that both aren't affected by the outside stimuli. Effects Research Methods: ● Content Analysis determine the amount of violent/sexual content in media. ● Surveys determines amount of media use and how it's used. ● Experiments determine cause and effect by manipulating independent variables. Powerful Effects: Hypodermic needle or magic bullet hypothesis Media influence hits us like a bullet, leaving us changed forever. ● Copycat Actions based on media: Prosocial (good for society.) Edith bunker had a breast cancer scare on “All in the Family”, as a result, women all over the country went in for breast exams. Antisocial (Bad for society) Beavis and Butthead would set cats on fire, some underaged or impressional people would see this and then attempt it in real life. ● Propaganda and advertising determine why/how you do something. DAY 8: Active Audience ● Selective exposure “What do you want to watch?” ● Selective attention Paying more attention to one message than another. ● Selective perception seeing something the way we want to see it. ● Selective attention and recall Only remembering certain things from an event. ● Selective behavior of social categories Behaving in appropriate ways for the perceived situation as displayed by the media. Diffusion of Information ● Personal and interpersonal influences ● Media effects can be indirect. ○ Two step flow, Which goes from The opinion leader to individuals who agree. ○ Multi step flow, Where the opinion leader takes steps to give his/her/their message to both individuals who agree and unconvinced individuals. ○ Crystallization is the goal when the opinion leader delivers their message to the individuals who agree. Crystallization id the sharpening of attitudes of individuals who then make the decision to do something, creating a definite decision. Often done through specific reinforcement. Albert Bondura was the man behind the bobo doll experiment. He showed two different movies to two different groups of children. To one, he showed a man beating up a bobodoll and only that in a room full of toys. In the other, the man played with all the toys and ignored the bobo doll. The kids emulated the behavior shown in whatever video they watched. The conclusion from this experiment was determined to be that violence may not cause violent behaviour, but it may encourage it. The human need for approval makes us want to emulate those considered heroes. The human need for attention makes us want to emulate those in the spotlight, good or bad. People can and will ignore the means for a specific end that they have witnessed. Social Learning and Media ● Behaviours, rewards, and justifications are observed in media. We learn about life from the lives portrayed on TV. ● Mediated behaviours are especially influential. When people don't have experience with those behaviours. This is the application of TV scenarios and solutions to our daily life. ● Mediated behaviours are only influential when we retain, accept, and imitate the behaviours. Trying unfamiliar scenarios we see on TV. Social Cognitive Theory ● Media can teach us to model behaviours, values, and beliefs. Here lies the difference between acquisition (trying it once) and acceptance (continuing behaviours). ● Sometime media teaches but other adopters motivate us to behave a certain way. (With or against TV emulated behaviours). ● Media is more influential when other adopters are absent. Example TV is the only influence so dangerous TV behaviour is emulated exactly. Cultivation Theory A stalagmite theory (from the ground up) ● Popular media, especially TV, shapes or cultivates the view of social reality ● TV dominant storyteller ● Stories are relatively uniform in values and images. Resonance similarities between TV world and us. Mainstreaming cultural and Social forces are diminished, and TV forces replace it. The very young and the very old are influenced the most in the cultivation theory. George Gerbner studier of the Cultivation Theory. Featured in Video “Killing Screens. Killing Screens notes: George Gerbner studied the cultivation theory for 40 years and came to the conclusion that violence on TV made us more scared of violence being done to us. Mean World Syndrome: George Gerbner founded the Cultural Innovations Research Project, which tracked media violence and the ramifications in the real world. The media shows “Happy Violence”, which is entertaining, well choreographed, humorous violence that ends in a happy conclusion. There is no cognitive conclusion that media is the cause of increased violence, but it is a known factor. It cannot be fully measured because there can be no control. WE ALL were exposed to media in some form since birth. Cultivation a stable system of messages shapes our conception of the world. “Mainstreaming” of violence in the media makes the world think that there's more violence than there is. In actuality, more violence is being covered in the media, and less is happening in the country. Mean World Syndrome The media shows violent and vile, “mean world” stories because that is what the audiences find the most intriguing and fascinating. As a result approximately 61% of news is about violent crimes, actions and disasters. The fear of being attacked, being a victim, has made the nation more afraid of their fellow man. Gun sales have increased in contrast to the decreased crime rate. 2/3rds of those who say they are afraid, get their news from their television. Mean people Racial profiling in media has made some people more prone to be seen as offenders and victims. A Mean world cultivates mean people. MOST OF THESE VIOLENT PORTRAYALS ARE FALSE. The Fallout of course is fear. However the fear of violence starts a chain reaction. Fear making someone strike first, then more violence in retaliation, and so on. Gerber said he was most shocked that his study showed that TV causes its own subcultural effects with media. It's so visually, and mentally captivating, that it becomes the main focus of more than we realize.
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