Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes AMST 203
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Millirons on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMST 203 at College of William and Mary taught by Robert J. Scholnick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Medicine in America in American Studies at College of William and Mary.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Hannah Millirons Medicine in America September 12, 2016 Notes Week 3 Stowe o Stowe is writing about Dr. Yandell’s case narratives These are more like stories and less like formal lists or explanations of diagnoses They create a whole new genre of writing They are first person accounts, usually fragmentary autobiographies o During the 1830s and 40s, medical failures were strikingly common, so this was often discussed in the narratives This challenged doctor’s selfconfidence and the patients’ confidence in the doctors themselves Patients became skeptical of physicians Walt Whitman criticizes doctors and their intended cures bc they did more harm than good o Physicians felt superior to folk healers o Narratives traced a boundary between professional and personal lives of the doctors o Yandell had already been practicing for 12 years when he was 31 (18051878) o The line between professionals and “lay” people was very thin There was a difference in their training and knowledge, but the line was barely there when it came to practice o His son gets dysentery, which causes loss of fluid & electrolytes He ends up dying o Yandell goes through these cases of dysentery and doesn’t come out with any new knowledge He uses Siddenham’s methods of cooling down the body instead of bleeding the patient Leavitt o William H. Brisbane, M.D. (born in 1806) wrote in his diary that medicine is a worrying profession What he meant by this was that there are outside forces that don’t necessarily pertain to the case, but still affect his life His practice hadn’t been taking up much of his time, but the other things in his life have They affect his outlook on his work Worries came from traveling to the patient’s house o You could freeze, get bitten by mosquitos, you could get hurt on the way o You may not know what you need to bring, so you may not have the right materials to fix the problem o You may not get paid, so the trip may not be worth going a long way Another physician may already be there o Cost of travel may outweigh the benefits o Medical journals allowed gender roles to be understood and experienced by both genders Men were able to read about midwifery and social problems that women knew all too well o The domestic environment sometimes severely impacted the experience of physicians practicing inside the homes of patients and the physicians themselves o Being a physician was no longer solely a woman’s job It became a male breadwinning job Men and women still conformed to social gender norms o Men crossed over into the women’s realm when they started working in their patients’ homes and by letting their daily lives affect their work Distinction between work and domestic life was blurred since they mixed so much o Another male physician, Horace B. Willard, also had his life intertwined with his medical practice o Willard and Brisbane both refuted the idea the homeopathic medicine actually worked and believed that only regular medical ideals and practices were legitimate o Both were rural, smalltown physicians and both were against slavery o Physicians weren’t sent for unless it was an emergency It could take days for the patient to be seen Patients would be bleeding, vomiting, Starr o Starts out talking about the economy and how there wasn’t enough money to support a high level of care o Physicians couldn’t get much money from practicing Tried to raise prices and there was an oversupply, so it backfired o AMA founded in 1847 in Philadelphia Nathan A. Davis Developed first modern code of medical ethics Tried to raise educational needs of MDA Killed the push for universal healthcare over the course of the 20 century o Focuses on transportation Without it, physicians wouldn’t be able to make a living Automobiles and improved road enable doctors to visit patients more easily Urbanization brought patients into the city More money coming into healthcare Educational standards are raised Physicians entered a profession bc they wanted to help the patients, but were criticized Pierre Charles Louis o Tested bleeding o In his essay, he gave later researchers an essential tool on figuring out clinical trials Leopold Auenbrugger (17221809) o Invented percussion/tapping as a tool for diagnosis Rene Laennec (17811826) o Invented the stethoscope Marie François Xavier Bichat (17711802) o Distinguished between 22 different tissues o New insight into the body o Father of histology Robert Hooke (16351703) America’s first important major contribution is ether used as a means of anesthesia o William Thomas Morton Dentist in Hartford, CN & discovered ether could be used as anesthesia o John Collins Warren First surgeon to use ether Germ theory o States that certain diseases come from microorganisms o Needed a way of controlling germs by antiseptic and aseptic In 1873, there were 200 hospitals In 1912, there were 4000 hospitals John Gault o Led the mental hospital in CW o Advocated for the fair and humane treatment for the mentally ill Philippe Pinel (17451826) o Father of “moral therapy” Humane treatment of mental patients
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