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by: Katharine Anthony

09/14/2016 HIS 209

Katharine Anthony

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Here are the notes I took for the second week of class.
Israel/Palestine: Heritage/Challenge
Professor Roland
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 209 at Pace University taught by Professor Roland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Israel/Palestine: Heritage/Challenge in History at Pace University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
09_14_2016 Wednesday, September 14, 2016 1:21 PM  Gaza and the West bank were occupied by Israel in 1968. o Gaza is and should be under control of the Palestinian authority is not.  Hamas controls it  They are terrorists/freedom fighters  Doesn't want Israel at all, they want total Palestine.  Started 1987-88  The Official Palestinian Authority want a two country system  Israel for Jews  Palestine (just the West Bank and Gaza) for the Arabs  Fatah and the P.A. work together in West Bank  Mahmoud Abbas is the main player.  Aka Abu Mazen  In Arab culture with the first son being born the father takes on Father (son's name)  Leader of Israel is Netanyahu  Aka Bibi  Settlements o 350,000 Jews are living in the West Bank.  The Arab cities, Jenin, Tulkalm, Nablus, Bethlehem are controlled by PA  Joint control in some areas.  One of the problems is the West Bank gonna become Palestine. Are places going to be annexed, what will happen it's a very big issue.  Israel keeps building more and more settlements.  The more settlements you create the harder it is to get settlers to evacuate.  There are a majority settlers who would not come back to Israel proper.  Settlements are important.  Palestinians keep saying "Stop building" and Israel keeps building.  Settlements make commutes to places easy because only Jews can use specific roads.  Israelis can travel through the West Bank and into Israel proper easily but Palestinans do not.  It is extremely difficult for those who are not Israelis to leave the West Bank. Crossing is limited to just going between Palestinian workers who live in Israel.  There are many Israeli factories in the West Bank that has Palestinian workers.  One of these problems, is that this is a disincentive to have Palestinians to create their own businesses. o Settlers once they leave Gaza had huge amount of housing.  Palestinians have it all knocked down. o Green houses were left there as well.  When the Palestinians began trying to sell all this produce and everything, by the time they were able to get in all the produce was wilted and unable to be sold. o Palestinians have said if we have a state of the West Bank and Gaza, if Jews want to live here under Palestine. It's alright. But they can't live here in a settlement under Israeli authority.  Bibi recently made a speech saying "They don't want anyone who is Jewish in Palestine. They want an ethnic cleansing. " ( A week ago).  There was massive backlash. o If you win an area in a war you win it. It's legal.  Building is legal.  According to the Geneva convention you are not supposed to change the population. You cannot deport the population and you're not supposed to bring in your own people.  This Israelis are not deporting but they have brought in 350,000 Israelis in.  There is a complicated glitch that after the armistice lines were drawn in 1949, the West Bank was taken over by Jordan. When Jordan took the West bank, Israelis argued that this was not official recognized of the UN. The Jewish Story  Alexander III came into power o Pograms o Many Jewish people left for the new world. Some wanted to go to Palestine.  500 members of Bilu  60 went to Palestine o Hovevei Zion  They were influenced by Leon Pinsker who lived in Odessa.  "Auto- Emancipation"  Zionism- Belief that the Jewish culture should be put in Israel (Jewish Nationalism)  Underlying concept is that: Being Jewish is an ethnicity  They weren't assimilating into a culture  Nationalism was rampant in the 19th century  Key countries for Nationalism  Germany  Italy  Nationalism not only meant bringing together different parts of a people, but also breaking away from a multi-national country  Greece and other Balkan countries from the Ottoman Empire  Austro-Hungarian Empire was breaking up. o In the Jewish religion with the Jews in exile.  Diaspora  Dispersion all over the world.  Originally used for the Jews but now is used in the African Disapora, Chinese Disapora.  The exiled Jews always prayed to go back to their homeland. "Next year in Jerusalem."  Why didn't they go back before the 1880s?  Immigration is not easy.  Especially in undeveloped Palestine which was in the Ottoman Empire.  Old Yishuv  Old settlement. They lived in the land before 1881. They lived in the Holy cities because they wanted to be buried there.  Many were Sephardic or Mizrahi  Religious reasons: The Messiah had not come so they couldn't return to Palestine.  When the Messiah came they would be led back to Israel.  When the young Jews go they build about 10 settlements  They later became major towns.  They bought land from absentee Arab land owners.  They create a problem from this because there are tenant farmers/sharecroppers. They then are thrown off the lands.  These young jews don't farm the land themselves, they hired Arab laborers to farm the land. Every piece of cultivated land had to be protected. Then there are Arab security forces.  Arab farmers were basically subsistence farmers, cultivation of that time were also mono- culture (growing one crop)  After a while these settlements get into big financial trouble but are bailed out by one of Baron Edmund Rothschild ( central bank of England, France, Germany owners). He gave them money, seeds, agricultural experts.  1881-1903 they were called 1st Aliyah  25,000 people (maybe). They became known as the New Yishuv  Aliyah-> Call to the Torah-> ascendant (going up to the hills) A wave of immigration.  In Hungary, Theodore Herzl, goes to Vienna and studies law. He joins the fraternity and figures out he's not fully welcomed as a Jew.  He fancies himself a playwright and is awful and becomes a newspaper writer.  He gets a job with Neve Freie Presse, they send him to France.  He discovers anti-Semitism and writes about it. Two years later the Dreyfus Affair happens.  Alfred Dreyfus, highest ranking Jew in the French Army. He was falsely accused of espionage.  After this is false accusation is found to be false (1905 he is finally exonerated). This case attracted a lot of interest in France. The french divided themselves on whether or not he was guilty.  This was the last straw for him, he wrote a pamphlet on this because of the shock he felt over the fact the Jews were emancipated in France. He realized that this meant that there is always going to be the fact that the Jews could never assimilate in Western Europe.  Therefore Herzl proposed the solution for Jewish community was to create an independent state with international support (Der Juden Staat -> The Jews State) After a while it was translated into several languages and his words spread all around the world and lead to the organization World Zionist to be created so that they Jewish people could have global attention on their community state.  He's mentions Palestine, but he's not gung-ho about Palestine. He was willing to consider other countries worldwide such as Argentina, Uganda (Actually Kenya).  Meeting was held in Basal, mostly Eastern European Jews came, American and Western European Jews did not come.  Herzl had to realize that it had to be in Palestine, because that was what a majority wanted.  Herzel didn't want to start immigration until there was international recognition and he ran around to all diplomatic areas, others disagreed and wanted to immigrate as soon as possible. This begins the Second Aliyah  Second Aliyah  48-50,000 Jews.  They are imbued with the ideology of socialism.  They wanted to work the land with their own lands, they didn't want to exploit Arab labor or inequality.  They idolized manual labor (it was worshipped)  They came out and went to the farmers of the first aliyah and asked why did they have Arab workers.  The first Aliyah said no.  They finally hired them afterwards, and then the seconds went after the Arab security guards.  The goal of the second aliyah were they wanted to lease land.  Jewish National fund  Bought land in Palestine from Arab owners and leased out to the Jewish people.  They wanted it as a socialist society and everything was equal. Everything was super collectivized.  Kibbutz  Children lived in Children houses. They were raised by caregivers, they saw their parents for 2-3 hours a day.  This was super radical  This happened so kids were raised equally and so they got their values and way from the nuclear bourgeois family.  In many ways this succeeded.  It was so the parents, specifically women could work.  A problem develops with the women's work.  They wanted to be with their kids.  Hard manual labor felt less valued because they doing things like laundry, cooking, cleaning. Women just sort of got annoyed because they were doing what they were used to doing for 100 people.  They tried to professionalize women's work to fix this.  Played a super important role in agriculture and roles.  A majority of Jewish immigrants moved to the cities.  Haifa, Jersusalem etc.  1909 the first Kibbutz was started Degania , first Jewish city, Tel Aviv was started.  By 1914 100,000 Jews in Palestine, 600,000 Arabs in Palestine.


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