GEO 101 Week 3 Notes
GEO 101 Week 3 Notes GEO 101LEC
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anisha Karim on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Bennett, S J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
GEO 101 Week 3 CHAPTER 3 Temperature and heat flow process ● Measuring temperature ○ Temperature is the level of internal motion of atoms and molecules that make up the matter ○ Temperature scales consist of Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin. ● Surface temperature ○ Air temperature is measured at 4 feet because surface temperature is variable ● Wind Chills and Heat Index ○ Wind Chill Index: the higher the wind speed, the faster the rate our heat escapes our body, the colder we feel ○ Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion Important Formula!!: °C= (°F 32) * 5/9 ○ Heat Index: high humidity levels raise our heat perception ■ Humid conditions reduce the amount of evaporative cooling when we sweat ● Energy Transfer ○ Heat: Internal energy transferred from one substance to another as a result of their differences in temperature. ○ Heat flows by ■ Radiation: All objects emit heat (SW, LW) ● Sunlight’s SW radiation hits earth→ ground absorbs it and raises temperature→ ground radiates LW to the air and heats soil. ■ Conduction: Transfer by particles (atoms/molecules meet) ■ Convection: In gas or liquids (e.g warm air rises) ■ Advection: Mass of air moves, bringing its temperature and moisture. ○ Latent Heat ■ Sensible heat: heat flow resulting in an object’s/ its surroundings temperature change ■ Latent Heat: flow of heat taken or released when substance changes state ■ Important energy transfer in ocean/atmosphere ● Water→ water vapor is a cooling process as heat is absorbed\ ● Daily & Annual Cycles of Air Temperature ○ 4 important air temperature factors: Time of day; season; latitude; surface type (marine or continental) ○ Other factors include land use by humans, ocean currents, and elevation ○ Daily Cycle ■ Net radiation varies: positive after sunrise→ peaks at noon (high temperature is usually at 1 pm) → decreases to negative by sunset ■ Land and water contrasts: Maritime coastal regions have smaller daily and annual temperature ranges than continental regions ○ Temperature by Latitude ■ Annual insolation cycle effects net radiation, affecting monthly mean air temperature ■ Higher latitudes have larger annual temperature ranges ■ Equatorial regions have smaller annual temperature ranges ○ Local effects on Air Temperature ■ Microclimates (climate of a small area as opposed to it’s surroundings) ■ Cities have lower temperature at a higher elevation ■ Elevation ● Troposphere: higher you go the lower the temperature ● Stratosphere: higher you go the higher the temperature because of ozone ● Mesosphere: the higher you go the lower the temperature ● Thermosphere: higher you go the higher the temperature because there is no cover from the sun’s rays ● Urban and Rural Environments ○ Urban heat Island: City center with higher temperature than surroundings ○ Heat related fatalities sometimes occur ● World Patterns of Air Temperature ○ On maps Isotherms show centers of high and low temperatures ○ Temperature gradient on maps: rate of temperature change along a selected line ○ Three main factors are latitude, elevation, and maritime/continental contrast ○ Temperature is recorded by ■ Satellite technology that monitors sea and surface temperatures ■ Indirect methods have been used since the mid 19th century: tree rings; ice cores; ancient sediment; oxygen isotope ratio ● Temperature Records and Global Warming ○ Temperature records cycles of high and low temperatures ○ Temperature has been affected by volcanic activity (Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo) ○ Earth has been getting warmer in the past 50 years ○ IPCC (intergovernmental panel on climate change) stated in 2000 that global warming is unequivocal and in 2007 that it is mostly caused by human activity ● Temperature Trends by Latitude ○ Small islands and nations express alarm at rising sea levels ○ Arctic citizens are witnessing a greater rise in temperature ○ Arctic region is warming at 2.5 times the global average ● Renewable Energy ○ Solar; Wind; Geothermal; Nuclear ○ These are starting to become cheaper and a more environmentally friendly source of energy than non renewable fossil fuels 2 Bonus Exam Questions! ● Define Isotherms ● Use the Celsius to Fahrenheit conversion formula ○ °F= (°C * 9/5) +32
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