Introduction to Psychology
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Ch.1 What is psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Scientific Systematic methods Behavior What can be directly observed Mental Processes Thoughts, feelings, motives Critical Thinking the process of thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating evidence Things needed to achieve critical thinking Openminded: avoid narrow thinking Skepticism: check for errors Objectivity: multiple determents for behavior Curiosity: probe, explore, question, inquire History of Psychology Western philosophy Biology and physiology Wilhelm Wundt: In 1879 created the first psychology lab, came up with the idea of Structuralism~ looking inside at the structures of the mind, systematic and detailed selfreports William James: Came up with the idea of Functionalism~ the function or purpose of the mind, the minds interaction with the outside world, your stream of consciousness and why human thought is so adaptive Contemporary Approaches Psychodynamic :Conflict between biological drives and demands of society, Sigmund Freud~ Father of psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis the unconscious mind Behavioral: How behavior is shaped by environment, Ivan Pavlov~ classical conditioning, B.F. Skinner~ Operant Conditioning *Raised daughter in an air crib but there were no negative affects Cognitive: Mental processes involved in thinking and knowing, information processing and how humans interpret incoming information, weigh, store, and apply it Social Cognitive: Behavior determined by thoughts, modify impact on environment and behavior, Albert Bandura~ Reciprocal determinism interaction of behavior and environment *The Bobo Doll Experiment Behavior Personal and Cognitive Factors Environment Biological Approach: Chemical changes in the brain, thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain *Neuroscience, the brain and nervous system Sociocultural Approach: How social and cultural environment influence behavior and mental processes Humanistic Approach: Capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose your own destiny, Carl Rogers~ important to humanistic approach, Abraham Maslow~ Created Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: human needs in the order of the priority they take to achieve selfactualization Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ECh.2 Psychology’s Scientific Method Step 1: Observe some phenomenon Step 2: Formulate hypotheses testable prediction derived from theory Step 3: Test through Empirical Research operational definition of variables analyze data using statistical procedures Step 4: Draw Conclusions replication of results reliability Step 5: Evaluate the Theory change the theory? publication and peer review metaanalysis Types of Research Descriptive Research Goal: To describe a phenomenon *Does not answer questions on why things are the way they are Observation Naturalistic: observing in the “real world” Laboratory: observing in an “artificial” setting Surveys and Interviews Case Studies one individual is studied in detail Correlational Research Goal: Identify the relationship between two variables *Does not determine causation Determines STRENGTH of relationship Determines DIRECTION of relationship, positive or negative Experimental Research Goal: To determine causation *One of the few research designs that allows you to directly test why something happens Bias and Expectations Experimenter Bias: a process where the scientists performing the research influence the results, in order to portray a certain outcome *Also known as Research Bias Participant Bias: participants may act in ways they believe correspond to what the researcher is looking for The Placebo Effect: a placebo (fake treatment, like sugar, distilled water, or saline solution) can sometimes improve a patient's condition simply because the person has the expectation that it will fix them Double Blind: Both the participant and the researcher don’t know which group is the control group (placebo) and which is the experimental group (real treatment) *Eliminates Bias When Analyzing Research Results Avoid overgeneralizing results Exercise caution in applying group trends to individual experiments Question casual inferences Look for converging evidence Consider the source Research Ethics Research participants have rights *under APA guidelines The experiment is beneficial to society The participant has given informed consent and can withdraw at anytime The participant has confidentiality There’s no deception An Institutional Research Board is in Place Animal Research in Psychology The research is beneficial to humans Inflicting unnecessary pain is avoided Animals are provided housing and feeding Their physiological and physical wellbeing is taken into account *Rats and mice are used 90% of the time Ch.3 Biological Foundations of Behavior Neuroscience study of the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry It’s complex, integrated, and adaptable. The Nervous System Electrochemical communication system The Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System carries messages to and from the central nervous system to the organs and muscles Brain Spinal Cord 99% of the bodies Autonomic Nervous System nerves Somatic Nervous System Organs Muscles Sympathetic Nervous Parasympathetic System Arousal Nervous System Fight or Flight Calming Nervous System Pathways Nerves carry information Afferent Nerves (sensory) receive incoming information from the body and carry it to the brain and spinal cord *INPUT Efferent Nerves (motor) send commands from the brain to the body *OUTPUT Cells Glial Cells provide support and nutrition Neurons process information (About 100 billion in the brain) Cell Body contains nucleus and preserves cells Dendrites receive messages from other neurons Axons carry messages away from the cell body and transmit messages to the next neuron Myelin Sheath layer of fat that speeds up neural transmission Synaptic Gap space between two neurons Neurotransmitter chemicals that cross the synapse and influence the way the body functions Synaptic Transmission Electrical impulses are converted into chemical signals, then the axon releases a neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap, the dendrite receptor site then detects the neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: muscle actions, learning, and memory *Low levels associated with Alzheimer’s disease GABA (Gamma Amunic Betrea Acid): *Low levels associated with anxiety Norepinephrine: *Low levels associated with depression and high levels associated with stress and mania regulates sleep states in conjunction with Ach Dopamine: voluntary movements and reward anticipation, stimulant drugs activate the dopamine receptors *Low levels are associated with Parkinson’s disease and high levels are associated with Schizophrenia Serotonin: regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning *Low levels are associated with depression Endorphins: mediate feelings of pleasure and pain, natural opiates Oxytocin: related to attachment and emotional bonding, both a hormone and a neurotransmitter “Love at first sight” idea Released during orgasm, “the cuddle factor” why people have the urge to cuddle after sex Drugs and alcohol can interfere with the jobs of neurotransmitters. Components of the Brain Hindbrain Medulla: controls breathing and regulates reflexes Pons: sleep and arousal Cerebellum: motor coordination Midbrain Reticular Formation: connects the hindbrain to the forebrain In charge of stereotyped behavior patterns like walking Forebrain Limbic System memory and emotion amygdala: emotional awareness and expression hippocampus: formation and recall of emotions Thalamus relay station for sensory information Basal Ganglia coordination of voluntary movements Hypothalamus eating, drinking, sexual behaviors, the regulation of the body’s internal state, emotions, stress, and rewards Cerebral Cortex Highest level of the forebrain, where mental functions like thinking and planning take place Four Lobes: Occipital Lobe Vision Temporal Lobe Hearing, language processing, and memory Frontal Lobe Intelligence, personality, and voluntary muscles Parietal Lobe Spatial location, attention, and motor control
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