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Introduction to Psychology

by: Jessica Motz

Introduction to Psychology 101

Marketplace > Towson University > 101 > Introduction to Psychology
Jessica Motz
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About this Document

These are the notes from Chapters 1-3
Introductory Psychology
Beth A. Gallihue
Class Notes




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Ch.1 What is psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental  processes. Scientific­ Systematic methods Behavior­ What can be directly observed Mental Processes­ Thoughts, feelings, motives Critical Thinking­ the process of thinking reflectively and  productively and evaluating evidence Things needed to achieve critical thinking ­Open­minded: avoid narrow thinking ­Skepticism: check for errors ­Objectivity: multiple determents for behavior  ­Curiosity: probe, explore, question, inquire History of Psychology ­Western philosophy ­Biology and physiology ­Wilhelm Wundt: In 1879 created the first psychology lab, came up with the idea  of Structuralism~ looking inside at the structures of the mind, systematic and  detailed self­reports  ­William James: Came up with the idea of Functionalism~ the function or purpose  of the mind, the minds interaction with the outside world, your stream of  consciousness and why human thought is so adaptive   Contemporary Approaches Psychodynamic :Conflict between biological drives and demands of society,  Sigmund Freud~ Father of psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis­ the unconscious  mind Behavioral:  How behavior is shaped by environment, Ivan Pavlov~ classical  conditioning, B.F. Skinner~ Operant Conditioning *Raised daughter in an air crib  but there were no negative affects  Cognitive: Mental processes involved in thinking and knowing,  information processing and how humans interpret incoming information, weigh, store, and apply it Social Cognitive: Behavior determined by thoughts, modify impact on  environment and behavior, Albert Bandura~ Reciprocal determinism­  interaction of behavior and environment *The Bobo Doll Experiment Behavior Personal and Cognitive Factors Environment Biological Approach: Chemical changes in the brain, thoughts and  emotions have a physical basis in the brain *Neuroscience, the brain and nervous system Sociocultural Approach: How social and cultural environment influence  behavior and mental processes Humanistic Approach: Capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose  your own destiny, Carl Rogers~ important to humanistic approach,  Abraham Maslow~ Created Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: human needs  in the order of the priority they take to achieve self­actualization Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ECh.2 Psychology’s   Scientific Method Step 1: Observe some phenomenon Step 2: Formulate hypotheses ­testable prediction ­derived from theory Step 3: Test through Empirical Research ­operational definition of variables ­analyze data using statistical procedures Step 4: Draw Conclusions ­replication of results ­reliability Step 5: Evaluate the Theory  ­change the theory? ­publication and peer review ­meta­analysis Types of Research Descriptive Research Goal: To describe a phenomenon *Does not answer questions on why things are the way they are  Observation ­Naturalistic: observing in the “real world” ­Laboratory: observing in an “artificial” setting  Surveys and Interviews  Case Studies­ one individual is studied in detail Correlational Research Goal: Identify the relationship between two variables *Does not determine causation ­Determines STRENGTH of relationship ­Determines DIRECTION of relationship, positive or negative Experimental Research Goal: To determine causation *One of the few research designs that allows you to directly test  why something happens Bias and Expectations Experimenter Bias: a process where the scientists performing the research influence the results, in order to portray a certain  outcome *Also known as Research Bias Participant Bias: participants may act in ways they believe  correspond to what the researcher is looking for  The Placebo Effect: a placebo (fake treatment, like sugar,  distilled water, or saline solution) can sometimes improve a  patient's condition simply because the person has the  expectation that it will fix them  Double Blind: Both the participant and the researcher don’t  know which group is the control group (placebo) and which is  the experimental group (real treatment) *Eliminates Bias When Analyzing Research Results ­Avoid over­generalizing results ­Exercise caution in applying group trends to individual  experiments  ­Question casual inferences ­Look for converging evidence ­Consider the source Research Ethics ­Research participants have rights *under APA guidelines ­The experiment is beneficial to society ­The participant has given informed consent and can withdraw  at anytime ­The participant has confidentiality ­There’s no deception ­An Institutional Research Board is in Place Animal Research in Psychology ­The research is beneficial to humans  ­Inflicting unnecessary pain is avoided ­Animals are provided housing and feeding ­Their physiological and physical wellbeing is taken into  account *Rats and mice are used 90% of the time Ch.3 Biological Foundations of Behavior Neuroscience­  study of the body’s electrochemical communication  circuitry It’s complex, integrated, and adaptable. The Nervous System­  Electrochemical communication system The Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System­  carries messages to and from the  central nervous system to the  organs and muscles Brain Spinal Cord 99% of the bodies Autonomic Nervous System­ nerves Somatic Nervous System­ Organs Muscles Sympathetic Nervous Parasympathetic System­ Arousal Nervous System­ Fight or Flight Calming Nervous System Pathways­  Nerves carry information  Afferent Nerves­ (sensory) receive incoming information from the body and  carry it to the brain and spinal cord *INPUT  Efferent Nerves­ (motor) send commands from the brain to the body  *OUTPUT Cells Glial Cells­ provide support and nutrition  Neurons­ process information (About 100 billion in the brain) Cell Body­ contains nucleus and preserves cells  Dendrites­ receive messages from other neurons  Axons­ carry messages away from the cell body and transmit messages to the next  neuron  Myelin Sheath­ layer of fat that speeds up neural transmission Synaptic Gap­ space between two neurons Neurotransmitter­ chemicals that cross the synapse and influence the way the body  functions Synaptic Transmission­ Electrical impulses are converted into chemical  signals, then the axon releases a neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap,  the dendrite receptor site then detects the neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters­  Acetylcholine: muscle actions, learning, and memory  *Low levels associated with Alzheimer’s disease  GABA (Gamma Amunic Betrea Acid): *Low levels associated with anxiety Norepinephrine: *Low levels associated with depression and high levels  associated with stress and mania  ­regulates sleep states in conjunction with Ach Dopamine: voluntary movements and reward anticipation, stimulant drugs activate  the dopamine receptors  *Low levels are associated with Parkinson’s disease and high levels are  associated with Schizophrenia  Serotonin: regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning *Low levels are associated with depression Endorphins: mediate feelings of pleasure and pain, natural opiates   Oxytocin: related to attachment and emotional bonding, both a hormone and a  neurotransmitter ­ “Love at first sight” idea  ­ Released during orgasm, “the cuddle factor” why people have the urge to cuddle  after sex Drugs and alcohol can interfere with the jobs of neurotransmitters. Components of the Brain Hindbrain­ Medulla: controls breathing and regulates reflexes Pons: sleep and arousal Cerebellum: motor coordination Midbrain­  Reticular Formation: connects the hindbrain to the forebrain ­In charge of stereotyped behavior patterns like walking Forebrain­ Limbic System­ memory and emotion ­amygdala: emotional awareness and expression ­hippocampus: formation and recall of emotions Thalamus­ relay station for sensory information Basal Ganglia­ coordination of voluntary movements Hypothalamus­ eating, drinking, sexual behaviors, the regulation of the body’s  internal state, emotions, stress, and rewards Cerebral Cortex­ Highest level of the forebrain, where mental functions like thinking and planning  take place Four Lobes:  Occipital Lobe­ Vision  Temporal Lobe­ Hearing, language processing, and memory  Frontal Lobe­ Intelligence, personality, and voluntary muscles   Parietal Lobe­ Spatial location, attention, and motor control


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