New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 101 Week 2 notes

by: Alondra Notetaker

Biology 101 Week 2 notes 101

Marketplace > Loyola University Chicago > Science > 101 > Biology 101 Week 2 notes
Alondra Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This covers the third chapter in the biology book for class. It is a mix of class notes and personal book notes.
General Biology
Class Notes
Biology, 101, water and biology
25 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in Science

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alondra Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Loyola University Chicago taught by Castignetti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at Loyola University Chicago.


Reviews for Biology 101 Week 2 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/18/16
Water&Life: ❖ Water is very important to life,​ it is the only substance that exists in all three form on earth (liquid, ice and water vapor) ❖ Waters molecule structure is very simple it is shaped like an upside-down V ➢ Oxygen is more electronegative​ so the Oxygen pulls the electrons from Hydrogen towards the Oxygen ➢ This bond demonstrates a polar molecule which means the overall charge is unevenly distributed ➢ Each water molecule can hydrogen bond to neighboring water molecules multiple times ➢ When it is in liquid form the hydrogen molecules are very fragile ❖ Water molecules stay close together due to the hydrogen bonds ➢ The constant linkage of water molecules make water more structured than any other liquid ➢ Cohesion:​ Property that makes water molecules attracted to one another ■ Cohesion contributes to the transportation of water and dissolved nutrients against gravity in plants ➢ Adhesion:​ T ​ he clinging of one substance to another ■ Adhesion helps to counter the downward pull of gravity in cell wall ➢ Surfacetension:​​Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid ■ Some insects can “walk on water” because they are standing on top of the small part of water that has a layer of an ordered arrangement of water molecules and they have not yet broken the surface ModerationofTemperature byWater: ❖ Water is an effective heat bank because it can release large amounts of heat that it absorbs and only slightly changes its own temperature ➢ KineticEnergy:​ anything that moves, energy of motion ➢ ThermalEnergy:​Is kinetic energy that’s associated with random movements of atoms/ molecules ➢ Temperature​:​ a measure of the overall average kinetic energy in a body of matter ■ Example: When water is heated from room temperature to boiling if you measured the starting and ending temperatures you would see that the overall temp. Increased. The chemistry behind this is that as water is heated the water molecules will start to shake and move around much faster which causes the rise in temperature and the rise in kinetic energy of the molecules. ■ When 2 objects with different temperatures are combined the thermal energy passes from the warmer to cooler object until they both reach the same temperature ➢ Heat:​ ​Is when thermal energy is transferred from one body of matter to another ■ Calorie:​ ​ a unit of heat, it is also the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius ■ Kilocalorie:​ 1000 cal, is the quantity of heat required to raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1 degree celsius ■ Joule:​ a​ n energy unit, one joule equals 0.239 cal ■ SpecificHeat:​ amount of heat that ​must be absorbed or lost​ for 1 g of that substance to change its temp by 1 degree celsius ■ Water has a high specific heat ■ Water will change its temp less than other liquids when it absorbs or loses a given amount of heat ■ Because of water’s high specific heat water that covers most of the Earth keeps temp. fluctuations on land and in water within limits that permit life ❖ Molecules that move fast enough from a liquid can enter the air as vapor also known as evaporation ➢ Heatofvaporization:​​quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g to be converted from liquid to the gaseous state ➢ The high heat of vaporization of water is a result of its strong hydrogen bonds ➢ Evaporativecooling:​ reduction in temperature as a result of the evaporation of a liquid ■ Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant helps keep tissues in the plant from becoming too warm, can look at this as the same concept for humans when they sweat ➢ Water expands making it less dense as a solid then a liquid ➢ As temperature is lowered in water the molecules start to move too slow to break hydrogen bonds at 0 degrees celsius they become locked in a crystalline lattice ➢ Global warming and other greenhouse gases are having an immense impact on the icy areas of the world ❖ Water is the solvent of life ➢ Solution:​ a liquid that is a completely homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances ➢ Solvent:​ ​a ​dissolving agent​ ( can memorize as someone with a southern accent saying “a solvent does the dissolvin’) ➢ Solute:​ ​substance that is dissolved ➢ AqueousSolution:​ ​when the solute is dissolved in water ■ Water is a very versatile solvent ■ Hydration shell: ​sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion ■ Compound ​does not need to be ionic to dissolve in water​, some compounds can dissolve when they are surrounded with water molecules and are able to form bonds with the water molecules ❖ Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances ➢ Hydrophilic:​ ​any substance that has an affinity for water ■ Sometimes substances can be hydrophilic without actually dissolving ■ Cotton is an example of a molecule that is hydrophilic but does not dissolve because of the cellulose molecules within the plants ➢ Hydrophobic​:​ substances that ​DO NOT​ have an affinity for water this includes substances that are nonionic and nonpolar ■ Examples include vegetable oil because it does not mix stably with water- based substance ❖ We must be able to understand how many atoms/ molecules are involved to calculate the concentrations of solutes in an aqueous solution ➢ Molecularmass:​which is the ​sum of the masses ​of all atoms in a molecule ➢ Mole:​represents a measurement, it means​ 6.02x10^23 ​also known as Avogadro’s number ➢ Molarity:​ ​the number of moles of solute per liter of solution ❖ Hydrogen bonds between 2 water molecules and a hydrogen shifts from one to another ➢ Hydrogenion:​ a single proton with a charge of +1, the hydrogen leaves its electron behind ➢ Hydroxideion​:​the water molecule that lost a proton, which has a charge of -1 ➢ Hydroniumion:​ a proton binds to other water molecules ■ Dissociation of water is reversible but rare and is very important in chemistry since the H+ and OH- are very reactive a slight change can drastically affect a cell ➢ Acid:​​a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution ➢ Base:​ substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution ➢ In an aqueous solution of 25 degrees celsius the product of H+ and OH- is constant at 10^-14 ■ pH of a solution is defined as the negative log ■ pH= -log [H+] or pH = -log [OH-] ⇐ can use these to find the pH values of hydrogen and hydroxide solutions ➢ Buffer:​ ​a substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- ■ It does this by accepting hydrogen ions from the solution when it is in excess or by donating hydrogen ions when it is depleted Acidification of Water ❖ Burning fossil fuels r​ eleases gaseous compounds into the atmosphere ➢ Certain compounds react with water making it more acidic ➢ CO2 is the main gas that is released from burning fossil fuels and too much of this gas can cost the marine ecosystem ■ Oceanacidification:​ ​CO2 dissolves in seawater it reacts with water to form carbonic acid which lowers the oceans pH ■ Extra hydrogen ion combines with carbonate ions to form bicarbonate which decreases the carbonate ions which are essential to marine life because they decalcify


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.