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Cell Structure

by: Kri'Shonna Johnson

Cell Structure BIOL 1020

Kri'Shonna Johnson

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The structure of cells and their fibers, the types of microscopes and the two types of cells
Principles of Biology I
Dr. Sasek
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kri'Shonna Johnson on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Dr. Sasek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Friday September 9: MEMBRANES  >Functions:  ­Separate sales from environment.                       ­Control passage of molecules.                       ­Divide cells into compartments.  ­Provide a reaction surface. >Components: Phospholipids                 G L Good to Y Nonpolar Tails =   C Hydrophobic E Polar Heads = Hydrophilic  R Phosphorylated O 2 Fatty   L Acids  alcohol  *Proteins determines the functions  *Micelle: a group of phospholipids  *Lipid Bilayer: tails are packed tight together *Liposomes are lipid bilayers (can add water on the inside) *Fatty Acid tails may be saturated (together) unsaturated (bends) >Too much saturated fat may cause a cell to be stiff  >Cholesterol may be found in membranes (may reduce softness or fluid) >Characteristics: Strong but flexible        ­Self assembling       ­Self healing  >Important Functions: Transport      ­Enzymes       ­Receptors       ­ID Markers        ­Attachment & Cell adhesions  What keeps the proteins embedded in the phospholipid Bilayer?  By transmembrane proteins along with polar & non­polar proteins  *Proteins are amphipathic (different characteristics none uniformed)  >Fluid Mosaic: describes the plasma membrane as a fluid combination of  phospholipids, cholesterol, & proteins  >Fiber in the extracellular matrix act as an anchor for the proteins Wednesday September 14: Cell Structure  >All living organisms are composed of one or more cells         >Smallest unit of life (Cells) >New cells come only from pre­existing cells by cell division  >Eukaryotic Cells: 10­100x bigger            Includes:          ~True molecules         ~plantae     ~Animalia                                          ~Complex interior       ~fungi      ~Protista  >Prokaryotic Cells: smaller                        Includes:                                ~no nucleus                  ~bacteria                                 ~simple interior           ~archaea Microscopy & Cell Size >Light Microscope: magnification limit ≈ 1000x e ay seeeNucleus                                               Most plant & animal cells                                               Most bacteria                                               Mitochondria  >1931­Electron Microscope: magnification more than 100,000x                                                Range from 100μm to 0.1μm >Types of Electron Microscope: Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM)                                                        Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM)         *TEM can see details *SEM can see texture  >Cell Size: Surface to Volume  *Total Surface area [sum of surface areas (height x width) of all box sizes x  number of boxes] *Total Volume: [height x width x length x number of boxes] *Surface­to­volume: (S­to­V) ration [surface area / volume] Nucleus & Endoplasmic System  >Endomembrane Systems include:   Nucleus  Reticulum        Vesicles  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Golgi Apparatus  *Nucleus: Nuclear Matrix  Chromatin                  Nucleolus           Double Membranes                   Nuclear Pores *Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 2 Types                 Smooth ER          Rough ER                 ~No Ribosomes   ~Make Proteins                  ~Make Lipids      ~Ribosomes Build Proteins                                             ~Source of Membranes  *Vesicle Formation: On ER surface; takes away proteins to Golgi *Golgi Apparatus: Vesicles emerge w/Golgi & empties proteins aka warehouse  *Specialized Vesicles: Lysosome (contains digestive enzymes & strong acid) *Vacuoles: found in the central area of most plant cells (usually full of water) *Protists often have contractile vacuoles to pump out water to counteract osmosis Friday September 16: Semiautonomous Organelles >Mitochondria: location of cellular respiration                           ~found in all eukaryote cells                           ~single outer membrane                           ~folded inner membranes  >Chloroplasts: photosynthesis happens here                         ~found in plant & algae                         ~double outer membrane                          ~complex of enteral membranes  Evolution of Eukaryotes  >Simple to complex cells  >Endosymbiosis theory instead of slow gradual change *Symbiosis: 2 Organisms benefiting from each other  *Endosymbiosis: one thing living inside another organism                                           Ex: Algae & Coral *Mitochondria is an aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote *Chloroplasts is a photosynthetic prokaryote       Evidence for Endosymbiosis? >Binary Fission: Divide like prokaryotic cells                    *Are sensitive to antibiotics like Streptomycin & Chloramphenicol  >DNA: Mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own but not in the nucleus  Cytosol & Cytoskeleton  >Cytoskeleton: Fibers that attach to parts of a cell & act as an anchor                            come in various sizes *Actin Filament: Microfilaments                              ~Long thin                                ~Twisted together                              ~Help move things around                              ~Easy to disassemble (Reusable)   *Microtubule: Long, hollow cylindrical (above 25nm thick)                         ~Can be assembled & disassembled (reusable)                         ~Has a + end & a ­ end                                *Intermediate Filament : Intermediate in size                                          ~Fibrous Protein                                        ~Can be assembled & disassembled (NonReusable)  >Microtubule “railroad tracks” helps transport vesicles  Structure: ~Kinesis (protein (motor protein)) which helps “walks” the        vesicle on the tracks by using energy  ~Twisted ~ 2 “Duck Feet”                              


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