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GR1123 World Geography Week 5 Class Notes

by: Juliette R

GR1123 World Geography Week 5 Class Notes GR 1123

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Geography > GR 1123 > GR1123 World Geography Week 5 Class Notes
Juliette R
GPA 3.8

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Week 5 notes for World Geography GR 1123
World Geography
Alexandria Grimes
Class Notes
World Geography
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliette R on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Alexandria Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
    GE 1123 World Geography 1  09/12/16    Middle America (cont.)    Illegal Drug Smuggling  ● Cocaine, Heroin, and Marijuana   ○ Cocaine from Colombia and Venezuela   ○ Marijuana from Mexico  ● Biggest problem is in Juarez, Mexico  ○ Across from El Paso, Texas  ○ Mexican authorities usually are bribed and involved  ○ 3075 murders in Juarez (2011)  ■ On average 8 people die a day  ● Movie Industry has benefited from this area’s drug problem    Kidnaping  ● Increased over time    Deforestation  ● ⅔ of Middle America had tropical rainforests before European colonization   ● Only 10% of these areas still remain  ● Reasons  ○ Industries desire tropical woods for profit  ○ Population increases and the need for land (houses, agriculture)    Facts  ● Mexico  ○ Desert in the North  ○ Tropical mountains in the south  ○ 77% of population is urban  ○ North Mexico is more wealthy  ■ Around $10,000 USD/year  ○ South Mexico is less wealthy  ■ Around than $5,000 USD/year  ● Guatemala  ○ Independence from mexico in 1838  ○ Largest population of any other Central American state  ■ Over 15 million  ○ Militarized government  ○ Exports  ■ Minerals (nickel) from mountains  ■ Oil predominate in lowlands  ■ Coffee is grown in mountains    StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016     GE 1123 World Geography 2  ● El Salvador  ○ Independence from Spain 1821  ○ Civil War 1980   ■ Many fled to the US  ○ Democratic government  ■ Has added manufacturing jobs  ○ Poverty, Crime, Natural Disasters  ○ Exports  ■ Coffee, sugar, rice, shrimp, beef  ● Belize   ○ AKA British Honduras  ○ Population mostly of African descent  ○ Commercial exports:  ■ Seafood, clothing industry  ○ Economy  ■ Fueled by tourism, offshore banking  ● Honduras  ○ 3rd poorest country (after Haiti & Nicaragua)  ○  Mostly agriculture  ■ Forests, mining, bananas, coffee, shellfish  ○ Recently plagued with natural disasters  ■ Hurricanes  ○ Internal conflict of power makes it have an unstable economy  ○ Trying to expand tourism sector  ● Costa Rica  ○ 7% of world’s biodiversity  ○ Highest standard of living, literacy rate, and life expectancy of any Central  American country   ○ Agriculture & tourism  ■ Bananas, coffee, tropical fruit, seafood  ■ Charter fishing  ○ Lost 80% of its Rainforests   ■ Laws passed to protect the remaining 20%  ● Panama  ○ Mountainous  ○ Panama Canal makes most of the country’s economy  ■ Hundreds of millions of dollars in tolls  ■ 14,000 ships/year  ○ Exports:  ■ Sugarcane, rice, seafood​ ananas  ○ Isthmus: land bridge  ○ Banana fungal virus destroying bananas       StudySoup Juliette Reid  Fall 2016     GE 1123 World Geography 3  ● Republic​ of Cuba  ○ Largest Caribbean island is size and population  ■ 11.3 million people  ○ Mostly Poor  ■ Still drive 1950s cars due to trade embargo with US   ○ Exports:  ■ Tobacco, coffee, rice  ■ Cigars (for the US)  ○ Government: Communist   ○ Relationship with the US  ■ Coup ​ orchestrated by the US military   ● Places Batista as President  ■ Batista instill​ elaxed regulati​ on business   ● US controlled much of sugar production  ● Operated as an oppressive ​ ictatorship  ● Organized crime (casinos)   ○ Revolution  ■ Independence from Spain after Spanish American War  ■ Was a “democracy” up to 1959  ■ Revolutionaries led b​ idel Castro​ nd​ rnesto Che Guevara  ■ Under ​communist rule​ since 1959    09/14/16    ○ Tensions with US  ■ US embarrassed by failure of the Bay of Pigs   ● US liked the Batista  ● Tried to throw out Castro and Guevara   ■ Cuba and Russia get cozy  ■ US did not want ICBN 90 miles from the US  ■ Trade embargo enacted in 1960  ● Haiti  ○ Poorest country in West Hemisphere  ○ Mountainous  ○ Located on island Hispaniola  ■ Shared with Dominican Republic  ○ French is native language   ○ Plagued with Natural Disasters  ■ 5 tropical storms/hurricanes since 2008  ■ 2010 Earthquake          StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016     GE 1123 World Geography 4  ● Dominican Republic & Puerto Rico  ○ DR dominated ​most​ of Hispaniola (62%)  ○ Natural resources  ■ Nickel, gold, silver, sugar, tobacco, coffee  ○ US took over PR from Spain  ■ PR considers themselves their own “state”  ○ PR is owned by the US   ■ 4 million people  ■ Pay ​n​ taxes  ■ Have their own constitution  ■ Owe 70 million in debt to other countries  ● US owes 19 trillion in debt  ● Bahamas  ○ Former British colony  ○ 32,000 population  ■ Mostly of African descent  ○ Consists of 3,000 islands  ■ Only 700 have vegetation  ■ 30 of the 700 contain people  ○ Not many natural resources  ■ Huge in tourism    Zika Virus   ● Spread by mosquitoes  ● Global health emergency  ● Can cause microcephaly in newborns  ● No vaccine    South America    Fun Facts  ● 12 states  ● Mountains in the west, amazon basin in the east   ● Most of the population lives in Brazil  ● Most of the population lives on the coast  ● World’s highest waterfa​ ngel Falls   ● 4th largest continent  ● 20%+ of Earth’s oxygen is produced in South America in the rainforests  ● Brazil has won more world cups than any other country in the world (5 titles)  ● 51% of South American population speaks Portuguese  ● Rich in natural resources  ○ Gold, timber, water, oil      StudySoup Juliette Reid  Fall 2016     GE 1123 World Geography 5  Physical & Political Boundaries  ● Caribbean North  ● Andean West ­  ○ Andes Mountains  ● Southern Cone  ○ Below the tropic of capricorn  ○ Strong European imprints  ● Brazil    Physical Geography  ● Longest continent from North to South   ○ 4750 miles long  ○ Chile is 90 miles wide but 2500 miles long   ○ Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world  ● Size allows it to have a wide variety of climates and vegetation  ○ Mostly tropical rainforests  ○ Argentina is one of the most diverse with 5 different climate zones    Physical Regions  ● Andes  ○ World’s longest mountain chain  ○ 23,000 ft high, 4,300 miles long  ■ Rocky Mountains are only 3,000 miles long  ● Amazon Basin  ○ 2nd longest world river  ○ Mostly in Brazil  ● Brazilian Highlands   ○ Comprises of several small mountain ranges  ● Pampas  ○ The “Great Plains” of south America  ○ Mostly in Argentina  ○ Overfarmed  ○ One of the most endangered habitats on the planet    History  ● Incas   ○ Andes Mountains  ○ Combination of several cultures  ○ Established by the year 1000  ○ Largest empire to exist in the Americas  ○ Ancestral presence important  ■ Mummify important figures  ○ Chonacas greatest enemy    StudySoup Juliette Reid  Fall 2016     GE 1123 World Geography 6  ○ Predominately lived in areas calle​ ltiplanos  ■ High plains lake  ■ Birthplace of the Incas  ■ Between Bolivia and Peru  ○ Capital: Cusco, Peru  ○ Very advanced for the times  ■ Built huge buildings, great military strategists   ■ Terracing:​ giant stairs to level out mountain to easily get get up and down     09/16/16    ■ Civilized artifacts   ● Pots for water, colorful jewelry and clothing   ■ Road network 25,000 miles  ● Spanish Conquest   ○ 1531 arrived and enslaved  ■ Used existing for Spanish benefit  ■ Forced Incan people to mine people to mine silver  ■ Land Alienation​  taking control of another country’s established  infrastructure  ● Hierarchy and roadways  ○ Led by Francisco Pizarro   ■ 3 expeditions  ■ Founded Lima (capital of Peru)  ■ Came from nothing, rose to riches, assassinated  ○ Hidden civilization: Machu Picchu  ■ Ritual element   ■ Royal escape city (?)  ■ Abandoned before Spanish   ● Civil War  ■ Rediscovered 1911  ■ Part of an incomplete Pilgrimage trail?  ○ Silver Mining created huge wealth fo​ panish   ■ Spread colonies to Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay   ■ Potosi​, Bolivia rich in mining  ○ Portuguese took over native population in Brazil  ○ 90% of indigenous people died  ■ Disease and dangerous working conditions               StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ​ ​     GE 1123 World Geography 8  ● Build a better infrastructure (Highways, high speed railways, canal  system)  ■ Did not work as well as the European Union   ● Political posturing  ● Fight over control of resources  ● Some countries not interested  ● South American Economic Geography   ○ Ist Agriculture  ■ Sugar, Soy beans, coffee  ○ 2nd Manufacturing  ■ Chemicals, electronics, textiles  ○ 3rd Oil Production  ■ Brazil & Venezuela  ○ Unevenly developed  ■ Only contained to Brazil, Chile, and Argentina urban areas (coasts)  ○ Political instability for most countries    StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016


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