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PSY2012 PSY2012

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Class Notes
General Psychology
Gaby Pogge
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hugo Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Gaby Pogge in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
PSY2012 Week 4 Sensation & Perception ­ Do we perceive the world as it actually is? ­Everything is virtual ­Our human world is socially constructed ­Brain cannot interpret all incoming data (TMI) ­Our brains miss some info in the environment  ­"Filling in" ­Our brains also produce info that is not actually present in the environment  ­Sensation: Raw data gathering (form the environment)  ­Perception: Brain's interpretation of raw data  ­Illusions: perception does not match reality  ­Same principles/processes underlie all senses  ­Transduction ­Process of converting external stimuli into electrical signals (the "language" of the nervous  system) ­Sense receptors ­Specialized for vision, hearing, etc. ­Sensory adaptation ­highest activation when a stimulus is first detected, then decreases ­E.g., repetitive annoying sounds; sitting down  ­Takes place at the level of the receptor  ­Without adaptation, our attention would be stretched thin  ­Gustav Fechner (1860) ­How we perceive sensory stimuli in most basic form ­Basic characteristics of all stimuli: ­(1) Absolute threshold: lowest level of a stimulus we can detect ­50% of the time (human error increases with weaker stimuli) ­Exs: ­Feather on skin ­A single candle 30 miles away ­(2) Just Noticeable Difference ­smallest amount of change in a stimulus we can detect ­Ex. Turning the volume down until you cant hear it anymore, and then gradually turning it up  until you can just hear it again  ­(3) Weber's law ­Stronger the stimulus, the larger the Just Noticeable Difference ­i.e., when the stimuli is strong, larger changes must occur in order to sense a difference  ­Sensation requires detecting a signal amongst noise ­i.e., how people detect a stimulus under different conditions ­Ex. A telephone conversation with a static line  ­Response Bias ­tendency to answer one way when uncertain whether a weak signal is present or absent ­Phosphenes ­"seeing stars" in response to pressure on the eyeball or direct stimulation of the visual system  other than by light (e.g, cortical stimulation) ­Explanations: 1. Sensations determined by what sensory receptor is activated (not what's activating it) ­Ex. Both light and touch activate the visual system  2.Cortical connections between ares not always audio­audio, visual­visual etc.  ­Ex. McGurk Effect (audio­visual interaction) 3. Some brain areas may be multi­purpose, processing multiple senses ­Ex. Both audio and visual system interact with touch ­Reading braille  ­Synesthesia  ­Potnetially an extreme version of cross­modal sensations ­Ex1: Tasting, smelling, or hearing colors ­Selective attention: ­Brain picks and chooses important sensory information ­Other "channels" still processed at some level ­E.g., Hear your name from across the room ­Cocktail party effect ­We mostly try to ignore "background noise" (whatever we are not directly attending to) until the information is relevant to us ­Inattentional blindness ­Failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere ­Change blindness: failure to detect changes in the environment The Visual System ­Types of visual perception ­Visual Problems ­The ability to use minimal patterns to identify objects  ­Different cells are specialized to respond to different stimuli  ­"Simple" cells: lower level processing; detect simple lines and edges ­"Complex" cells: higher level processing; detect complex shapes, moving objects ­A couple prominent theories ­Trichromatic theory ­Opponent... ­Trichromatic theory ­We perceive three primary colors: red, blue, green ­Combine to produce any color ­Support ­Three kinds of cones (sensory receptors) each specialized for different wavelengths of light  ­Can explain color blindness ­Monochromats extremely rare (most people not entirely color blind, but have specific  deficiencies) ­Due to absence or reduced number of one or more types of cones ­Or brain damage to a color vision area in the brain ­Challenges ­Can't explain everything ­Afterimages ­Change in color perception after staring at one image for a long time and then looking away ­Looking at one color consistently results in seeing another color in the afterimage ­Opponent Process Theory ­Explains what Trichromatic theory cannot (i.e., afterimages) ­We perceive color in terms of three pairs of opponent cells that work in opposition  ­Red­Green ­Blue­Yellow ­Black­White Cindy Craig Psychology Librarian PsychInfo ("Best" Psychology Database)  Refworks ­ Bibliography  Chapter 4 Continued Perception: Senses meet brain ­What happens after transduction? ­Organize/consolidate data (in the brain) ­Piece together: ­Whats in our sensory field ­What was there a moment ago ­Parallel processing ­Attending to multiple senses at the same time ­Perception depends on sensory data ­But also: beliefs, expectations, motivation ­What we see can influence how we think, and vice versa ­Bottom­up versus top­down effects ­Bottom­up processing ­Features of the stimulus affect perception ­E.g. facial features can influence how competent, attractive, and trustworthy people are  perceived to be ­People can make these face judgments in just a fraction of a second  ­Face judgments predict real behavior  ­E.g., voting in political elections ­Top­down processing ­Psychological processes affect perception ­Beliefs, expectations, stereotypes ­E.g., cues about social status influence perception of race when racial membership is ambiguous ­High status clothing (suit and tie) cues categorization as White; low status clothing (blue collar  clothes) cues categorization as Black  ­Perceptual constancy ­Can perceive different stimuli as the same thing ­Size, shape, color constancy ­Gestalt Principles ­Perceive objects as a whole, not just sum of parts ­recognize whole faces, not just parts of face


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