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ANSC 1000 Exam 2 Lecture 1 Week 5

by: Brianna Notetaker

ANSC 1000 Exam 2 Lecture 1 Week 5 ANSC 1000

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These notes cover the first part of growth and development
Introduction to Animal Sciences
Alese Grey Parks
Class Notes
ANSC, animal, Science
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1000 at Auburn University taught by Alese Grey Parks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
ANSC 1000Exam 2 Lecture 1 9-14-16 Growth and Development Whystudygrowth anddevelopment?  To gainan understandingastohowto improvethe efficiencyoffood conversioninlivestockproduction 
  FE is highlyassociatedwiththebodycompositionoftheanimalandthe particularstageofgrowth for bone,muscle, andfat deposition 
 Desired Livestock Market HogPerformance Market Steer Performance 1950 Present 1950 Present Market 200-210 250-280 850-1100 1100-1300 Weight (lbs) Average 1.3-1.6 1.7-2.1 1.8-2.5 2.5-3.5 DailyGain (lbs) Feed 3.7-4.2 2.6-3.3 8.5-10.5 6.0-8.5 Efficiency (lbs feed/lb gain) Fat 1.6-1.8 0.5-0.9 0.6-1.0 0.3-0.6 Thickness (in.) Loin muscle 3.3-3.7 5.5-9.0 8-10 11-14 area (sq. in) Dayto 230 200-210 140-170 24-36 14-24 Whatis growth?  True growth is anincrease inbodyweight untilmaturesize is reached o An increasein cell size o An increasein cell number o An increasein massof bone,muscle,fat,and connectivetissue  Thisdoes notincludeexcess fat deposition(fattening) Whatis development?  Directivecoordinationofalldiverse processesuntilmaturityis reached o Growth o Cellulardifferentiation o Alternationsinbodyshapeandform We Don’t Know..  Whygrowth starts  How it is regulatedentirely  Whyit stops  In the body,genetics (DNA)is the ultimateregulator 2 o Cellsize andnumbersare regulatedto reach genetically determinedvalues.  Example:cut outa piece ofliver;it quicklygrows backto its originalsizeandstops.Why?Some inhibitory mechanismstopsthe growth GrowthOccurs Two Ways  Hyperplasia(increaseinthe cell number) o Thisoccurs beforebirthexcept for:  Some adiposecells– theycontinueto divideandget new cells for a while after birth  Skin – slough(shedding)cells;repairwounds  Intestinallining  Bloodcells  Most ofthesereallyare notnewgrowth but a replacementofexistingcells;however,cut or destroy brainandmuscle cells andtheyare notreplaced  Hypertrophy(increasein cell size) o Muscle cells – all are presentat birth o Nervecells – allare presentat birth o Most adiposecells– most are presentat birth PrenatalGrowth  Endoderm– Gastrointestinal(GI)tract,lungs,bladder  Mesoderm– skeleton,skeletalmuscles,cardiacmuscles  Ectoderm– skin,hair, brain,spinalcord  DNA chainsof chromosomesdirect: o Growth o Development o Differentiationprocess(proteinsynthesis)  Nucleusis the center ofthisprocess 3 CellTypes  Whitebloodcells  Fat cells  Bonecells  Intestinalepithelialcells  Nervecells  Skeletalmuscle cells Fetal Growth  Marked changes inshapeandform  Earlyinthe prenatalperiod,theheadislarger than the body 4  Order oftissuegrowth determinedbyphysiologicalimportance (CentralNervousSystem (CNS) first)  Largest increase inweight of fetusesoccur duringthelasttrimester After Birth  Numberof musclefibers doesnot significantlyincrease  Variousbodypartshaveconsiderablydifferent proportionscompared to mature o Birthweight: 5-7% ofmatureweight o Leg length:60% ofmatureleg length o Height at withers:50% ofmatureheight o Hip andchest widthare 1/3 size at maturity BasicAnatomyandPhysiology  Specializedgroupsofcells thatfunctiontogetherare called tissues.  Groupsoftissuesthatperformspecificfunctionsarecalled organs.  A groupoforgans thatfunctiontoaccomplisha larger functionis known asa system. Systems Importanceto LivestockProduction  Skeletal– bone,teeth,andcartilage o Protects organs o Gives basicform andshapeto the body  Muscular– skeletal,cardiac,andsmooth o Skeletal– largestcomponentofred meatproducts o Smooth– locatedindigestive,reproductive,and urinary o Cardiac– heart  Circulatory o Arteries– transportbloodawayfrom the heart o Veins – vessels thatcarrybloodtothe heart o Lymphatic– transportlymph(intercellularfluid) o Importfor transportofoxygen,nutrients,cellularwaste products,andhormones  Endocrine 5 o Ductless glandsthatsecrete hormonesintotheblood ANSC 1000Exam 2 Lecture 2 9-16-16 BoneGrowth Structure a d AreaofGrowth  Allmeat-producinganimalsfollowacommonpatternofbone development  Determiningage insheepcarcasses: o Breakjoint= lamb o Spooljoint= mutton 6  Even thoughboneis a structuralconnectivetissue,asis cartilage,the functionalpropertiesofboneresultin anextremelyrigidstructure thatis quiteinflexible  Longbonesconsistof: o Epiphyses(enlargedends) o Diaphysis(shaftregion) o Medullarycavitywithinis filledwith bonemarrow 
  Compactbone o Very dense;Foundatperipheryofbones  Spongybone o Lighter andless densethancompact bone  Epiphysealplate o Growthplate 7 o Located at each endoflongbonesbetweenepiphysesand diaphysis
 o Consistsofcartilage 
 o Facilitatesbonegrowthin length 
 o Cartilageossifiestobecome bone 
 SkeletalCells  Osteoblasts–bonematrixproduction o Bonecell precursors  Osteocytes – maintenanceofbonematrix o Matureosteoblasts  Osteogenesis– formationofbone  Osteoclast– resorptionofbone 8 BoneGrowth  Periosteum– outer epitheliallayerofbone o Diameter growth occurs byformationofnew osteocytes (matureosteoblasts)deposited  Diaphysis(shaft)oflongbonelengthensbecausecartilagegrowth is faster thanosteoblasts(bonecellprecursors)  Terminationoflongbonegrowth occurs when cartilage growth stops or is overcome byossification o Fusionofepiphysesanddiaphysisintosinglebone o Growthplateclosure 9  Osteoclasts– involvedinboneresorption o Breakdownandremodeling o Resultofhormonalaction  As animalsage, boneresorptionmayexceed boneformation  As osteoblastsandosteocytesaddbonetotheoutersurface ofbones, osteoclastsremoveboneat innersurface andenlarge themarrow cavity  There is a delicatebalancebetweenaddition&removal Cartilage  Amountofcartilage(or lackofit)is used toestimatematurityin beef carcasses o Maturationofvertebralcolumnisposteriortoanterior o Ex:sacral,lumbar,thoracic
  Maturityis a primaryfactor in determiningcarcassqualitygrade (Choicevs commercial)  Maturityis thebest singleindicatorofmeattenderness o As muscle gets older,there is increasedconnectivetissue 10 CarcassComposition  Productsfrom meatanimalsare primarily: o Fat o Lean (muscle) o Bone  Superiorcarcasses have: o Low proportionofbone o High proportionofmuscle o Optimumamountof fat  Understandinggrowth& developmentisimportantinknowingwhen to slaughtertoproducedesirablecombosoffat,lean,bone  Compositioninfluencedby: o Effects of frame size o Effect ofsex (affects fat component) o Effect ofmuscling(varies indirectlywithfat) Frame Size in BeefCattle  A functionofskeletalgrowth & maturation o Frame score 1(small)to frame score 7(large)  Frame size is determinedby2 factors o Height at the hips  Hip heightis used becausehipheightmaturityis reached severalmonthsbefore matureheightat the shoulders o Age
  Knowingframe size is a goodestimateofmature size(bulls)or slaughterweight (feeders) 11 Slaughter Weight oflarge-, medium-,and small-frame slaughter cattle at 0.50 in. ofbackfat Slaughter weight, lb Frame Size Steers Heifers Large (7) >1,200 >1,000 Medium(5) 1,000 – 2,000 850 – 1,000 Small(3) <1,000 <850 12 13


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