Classical Mythology, week 4
Classical Mythology, week 4 FL 4143
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Bramlitt on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FL 4143 at Mississippi State University taught by Scott Di Giulio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Classical Mythology Notes Week 4 Prof. Scott DiGiulio Athena and Dionysus Athena (“owleyed goddess”) The Birth of Athena Hesiod Theogony 891903 She’s the daughter of Zeus and Metis Hesiod Theogony 929931 “From his own hand he gave birth to owleyed Athena, The awesome, battlerousing, armyleading untiring Lady, whose pleasure is fighting and metal…” *The Birth of Hephaestus came about because of Athena’s birth* “And Hera, furious at her husband, bore a child without making love, glorious Hephaestus, The finest artisan of all the Ouranians.” Hephaestus Relentlessly mocked by the other gods o Homer Iliad 1.599600: “But among the blessed immortals uncontrollable laughter went up as they saw Hephaestus bustling about the palace.” o Attempts to seduce Athena Causes the birth of Ericthonius when he tried to rape Athena, but she escaped without her innocence being violated; however, with some of Hephaestus’ sperm upon her leg. Athena brushed it off of her and it fell to earth (Gaia) where then Gaia produced Ericthonius. Birth of Ericthonius: o Born from Gaia o Grows and overthrows kings on earth o Starts dynasty in Athens Athena (and Hephaestus) and Pandora Hesiod Theogony 573584 Athena gives Pandora clothes and irresistible beauty Also gives Pandora skills like crafting and weaving Attributes of Athena Virginity Masculine beauty Armor (shield, spear, helm) Bird: owl Aegis (with the gorgoneion armor piece/breast plate) Athena’s Domains Wisdom Cunning (Metis) Rational, calculated warfare o Homeric Hymn to Athena Crafts (esp. weaving) Patron of Athens Counselor to Heracles, Perseus, Odysseus, and others Athena and her mother, Metis Metis: daughter of Ocean, Titan goddess of wise counsel However, metis applies to many different things in Greek: o Uncertain situation o Situations that require cunning instead of force o Situations that require having a knack for something Epithet of Odysseus: polymetis“of the many wiles” Athena and Odysseus Homer Odyssey 13. 287299 Has close kinship because they’re similar Odysseus knows the importance of how to use Metis like Athena Athena Becomes Athens’ Patron Plato Menexenus 237c Apollodorus Library 3.14.1ff Athen’s Patron: Athena Parthenos The Panathenaic Festival Celebrates Athena’s birth Said to have been founded by Erechtheus ‘Great’ Panathenaea every four years It lasts 12 days Includes procession to Acropolis, person of gifts to the goddess, including a peplos, that was placed upon the cult statue. Erechtheion Caryatids Cult for Erechtheus For Athena Athena and Arachne Arachne challenges Athena to a weaving contest Loses and punished by Athena Athena turns her into a spider Dionysus: Birth and Parentage Son of Zeus and Semele, a mortal priestess of Zeus Semle is also a granddaughter of Aphrodite (mother Harmonia) Associated With Disorder, intoxication Exoticism Contradictions (old and new; pleasure and pain) Ritual madness Wine Fruit and flowers Animals, esp. leopards The theatre Dionysus and Wine Euripides Bacchae (406/ BCE) Myths of Resistence to Dionysus Pantheus in Thebes o Euripides Bacchae, Theocritus 26 o Thebes as a stop on Dionysus’ wanderings o Dionysus appears as a bull The Tynhenain Pirates o Dionysus appears as a lion o Causes a bear to appear o Turns kidnappers (pirates) into dolphins Shared Themes o “gentle” epiphanydisbelief o “harsh” epiphany punishment o Dionysus escapes bondage Euripides Bacchae 2336 ecstasy Instructions for the Afterlife: The Orphic Leaves Orphic Cult o Associated with the poetry of Orpheus, who descended into the underworld Orphic leaves buried with initiates, intended to provide instructs for their arrival in the underworld o Greek Persephone o Drink from Mnemosynth not Lethe Text from Orphic Leaf Thurii, c BCE The Orphic World View Transmigration of souls metempsychosis o Compare the myth of Er: Plato Republic 10 Hades as a place of release from the cycle of reincarnation Has a core set of ‘sacred’ texts o Different theogony than the one represented by Hesiod o Dionysus as a central figure Poseidon and Other Sea Gods The Sea in Greek Thought Trusty Earth; Untrusty Sea” – attribute to Pittacus, tyrant of Mytilene “…the earth is very large, and we live around the seas in a small portion of it between Phasis and the pillars of Heracles, like ants or frogs around a swamp.” Plato Phaedo 109b The Birth of Poseidon Hesiod Theogony 456462 Poseidon vs. the Titan and Giants Hesiod Theogony 734738 “there the Titans are concealed in the misty gloom by the will of Zeus who gathers the clouds, in a mouldering place, the vast earth’s limits. There is no way out for them. Poseidon set doors of bronze in a wall hat surrounds it.” Poseidon as a Foreign God? Egyptian? Herodotus 2.50 (Poseidon as aLibyan) Domains and Attributions Domains The sea (by extension, rivers too) Earthquakes Horses o Charioteers Attributions Bearded Sometimes enthroned Trident Dolphins and horses Chariot Epithets The “Earth Shaker” “Earth Holding” “Of the Sea” “Horsetamer” “Of the Isthmus” Poseidon’s Palace in the Sea Homer Iliad 13.2029 Poseidon and Horses Sophocles Oedipus at Colomus 709719 The Horses of Achilles: Balios and Xanthos Homer Iliad 23.272278 Sibling Rivalry Among the Sons of Cronos Homer Iliad 15. 184194 Poseidon and Amphitrite (wife) Poseidon and Demeter (affair) Pausanias Description of Greece 8.25.5 Poseidon’s wrath against Odysseus wrathful because he destroyed Poseidon’s city Poseidon and Polyphemos Homer Odyssey 9.528535 Odysseus blinds a Cyclops (Poseidon’s son) So again he is angry at Odysseus Pontus: Titan of the Sea Hesiod Theogony 126133 Gaia and Ouranos have a child named Pontus (Sea) who is the titan of the sea Nereus: Old Man of the Sea Hesiod Theogony 233265 Son of Pontus Proteus Homer Odyssey 4.363570 (whole episode) man of the sea shapeshifter Old Men of the Sea Nereus and Proteus o Also, Pontus, Triton, and others Generally have the gift of prophecy Shapeshifters Thetis Shapeshifter Prophecy that her son would be greater than his father o So Zeus makes her marry a mortal man, Peleus Wedding of Peleus and Thetis Son is Achilles o Commissions armor from Hephaestus for him
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