HIST 1060 week 3 notes
HIST 1060 week 3 notes history 1060
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Larremore on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 1060 at University of North Texas taught by Kristin Bocchine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see World History 1600 to Present in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
HIST 1060 week 3 notes Tokugawa Culture/Intellectual History NeoConfucianism “School of Principle” philosophers looked externally for morality, the government preferred this school “School of Mind/Heart” philosophers looked inside, this philosophy encouraged taking active action for good Ancient Studies Philosophers and historians looked to the past to rediscover original philosophy and Confucianism to solve contemporary issues National Learning Japanese history was taught and thought to help current problems Dutch Learning Small group of social elites looked to European science Culture Martial Arts Samurai had no wars to fight so they developed stylized, graceful fighting forms for performance as well as for combat Kabuki Theater Started as women actors, moved to male actors, very popular amongst the common people, actors treated like celebrities Prostitution Government regulated, mostly girls sold to brothels to work off family debts, not just physical, prostitutes trained in arts and social manners Opening of Tokugawa Japan Intellectuals started to think about what Japan needed to do to defend itself against the West Japan began to see growing threats: Foreign pressure on Japan Russia to the North Britain to the Southeast USA to the East from the Pacific Japanese leaders unsure of how to deal with foreigners Various plans were tried and tossed out Invest in military Invest in agriculture development Invest in technology All these were tried to better withstand foreign pressures Japan saw how the Opium Wars destroyed Chinese power and were forced to re think their antiforeigners policy Commodore Perry USA wanted to dominate naval control of Pacific and put coal stations in Japan to better access the rest of East Asia, (coal stations essential to refuel steamships) Harris Treatyopened 8 ports to US trade, unfair treaty in favor of US interests, unequal negotiated terms Daimyo resisted and tried to remain isolated at first End of Tokugawa Crisis of loyalty between emperor and Shogun 18581868, daimyo started to put more trust in the emperor and public support swayed on a massive scale Internal Power struggles Japanese economy failing gradually Meiji emperor took over in 1867, supported by rural daimyo, shogunate system thrown out and the Emperor rules absolute Korea Catch up to 1500 not needed for exam Yi dynasty (13921910) Chinese Influence Tributary to Ming Renewed interest in Confucian learning (b/c of Ming) Chinesestyle government NeoConfucianism and Women Women’s rights suffered heavily under Confucianism, they could no longer inherit or own property Buddhism starts to lose popularity under Yi Korean Identity Despite huge Chinese influence, Korea maintained its own identity Han’gul Korean language originally written using Chinese characters but finally gets its own unique written system, taught to lower classes easily Social System and Government King at the top Aristocracy ran the bureaucracy Bureaucracy divided into factions (similar to political parties) Factionalism factions fought for power and influence, eventually destroys the King’s power and stalls the government Social System Yangban upper class Chungin middle class Yangmin lower class, almost serfs/peasants Ch’onmin slaves Economics Did not promote trade, (Confucianism looked down on merchants) Military no real innovation Ming to Qing control traded from a tributary to one to a tributary to the other Economic growth during Qing restrictions on trade lifted, merchants start making more money, social classes become more fluid b/c people can buy their way up Westernization & Foreigners SelfEvangelizing: invited missionaries to come to Korea Western Learning a movt. Towards West to spite the old ways like Confucianism Looked to China for protection against foreigners Handicapped when dealing with foreigners, small ineffectual military Violent Response Tonghak “Eastern learning” Founded by Ch’oe Cheu (18241864) Wanted to reject Western ways and reclaim traditional Korean identity Goal was to restore Korea to Ancient Glory from before Chinese influence Tonghak Revolt/Uprising (1894) Lead to SinoJapanese War Vietnam Catch up to 1500 not needed for exam Dai Viet Ruling Chinese/Confucianstyle government Religion people mostly Hindu/Buddhist, upper class Confucian Economics mostly subsistence farming, lots of peasants Women women had more rights and privileges than other women in Asia, property, inheritance, matrilocal marriage (husband moves in w/wife), easy divorce Champa Southern Vietnam, a separate state, later incorporated into Dai Viet Le Dynasty (14281789) Tributary to Ming Developed unique writing system Founded by Le Loi, ruled from Hanoi Administered using Chinese model (provinces, local governors, etc.) Overtime became more commercialized (cash crops) and urbanized (bigger cities) Rebellions and Foreign Intervention 1771 Great Peasant Uprising Stirred up by rival factions to gain power, one side took over Involved French forces to win back control France wanted a foothold in Southern Asian trade France used authority as “defender of all Catholics” to gain control of govt. and trade, exaggerated threats and attacks against Catholics to instill martial rule 1885 France annexed Vietnam Vietnam never again independent until after Vietnam War China, Korea, and Japan Global East Asian Interactions Interactions Ming and Korea Korea is wall between Japan and China, worked together to fight against piracy, tributary relationship, like father and son Japan right before First Great Asian War was still in pieces trying to be unified, Japan wanted access to China so they attack Korea (wall) Korean military at end of 16 century was terrible b/c of stalled government’s ineffectual attempts to get reforms passed (factionalism) Yi Sun Sin Korean admiral wanted to strengthen military First Great Asian War First Invasion 1592, Hideyoshiled Japan invaded Korea and swept through occupying it Temporarily Japanese forces eventually get bogged down in terrain and guerilla attacks Korea calls on Ming aid and together (mostly Ming) they push out Japan Second Invasion 15971598, again Hideyoshi lead Japan into Korea and is pushed out again by even more Chinese troops Hideyoshi dies and the war ends b/c he was the only one driving it Armies and Arms Korea Turtle boats Invented by Yi Sun Sin, first armored ships ever, used to fight smallscale engagements amongst islands, hit and run tactics Japan Archebus Bad tactics for guns, misused weapons, negated any technological advantage they started with China large cannons Better navy, used cannons effectively, more diversified army and better technology across the board Results of War Makes China and Japan rethink military forces and technology Ming dynasty falls afterwards, may or may not have been bankrupted from war Korea is devastated by war economically and politically, does not recover Further expansion of Western imports of weapons and gunpowder to fuel continued military development Islamic Empires Catch up to 1500 Islam founded in 622 Muhammad (570632), founded Islam and led it at the beginning Turns Islam into a clan and gathers a lot of followers very quickly, retakes Mecca in 630 Caliph successors of Muhammad, succession fought over for several generations 5 Pillars of Islam 1. Statement of monotheism and belief in Muhammad 2. Pray five times a day facing Mecca 3. Giving to the poor, tithe 4. Ramadan fasting 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime Islam after Muhammad Orthodox caliphs 632661 Eventually division starts about whether Caliph should be related to Muhammad or be the most religious person After Muhammad, Islam spread very quickly Expanded into Sassanid Empire, Egypt, North Africa Umayyad Dynasty Battle of Tours 732AD Halted Muslim expansion into Europe at northern edge of Spain, fought by Frankish kingdom Abbasid Dynasty 7501258 Brought political, economic, and cultural change to Islamic world Greater sense of unity spread Seljuk Turks Take over Abbasid Challenged Byzantine power Eventually Crusades start b/c of Byzantine attacks (1094) Mongol Invasion Islamic empires on defensive front for first time ever Ottoman Turks (12991918) Arrive fleeing from Mongols, settle in Anatolia Sultan Osman r. 12991326 Ottomans wanted to expand empire into Balkans to surround Byzantine Empire Battle of Kosovo 1389 Resulted in mixed religious and ethnic groups that do not get along Ottomans ran into Tamerlane empire built on remains of Mongol empire Tamerlane empire very powerful but shortlived Ottomans Mehmet II (14511481) 1453, Mehmed’s janissary troops enter Constantinople Byzantine Empire officially ends Effects of Attack on Constantinople Economic Ottomans now had control of trade routes to East, trade monopoly, forces Europeans to start exploring Cultural Muslims now closer to Europe, Ottomans start becoming more and more European Military first major use of cannons in battle Political gave Ottomans momentum to expand, they would go on to conquer Egypt, Syria, Arabia, etc. Suleiman the Magnificent r. 15201566 Wanted to unify Eastern and Western people under Islam Extended Ottoman empire into central Europe and across Mediterranean Fought Safavid Persians for control of trade (Silk Road) in Mesopotamia Played a role in European Wars and got Ottomans involved even further in European affairs Instituted a law code that treated different nationalities more fairly Cultural Renaissance under Suleiman After Suleiman Successors of Suleiman not near as successful or qualified Dutch and French took over Indian Ocean spice trade This interferes with Muslim monopolized control of trade 1699 Peace of Karlowitz Forced to recognize Habsburg claims to Hungary Ottomans had been in dispute with Habsburgs over Hungary and other central European territories, source of most Ottoman/European conflicts Ottoman Society Multiethnic, intercontinental state Sultan by tradition had to be a strict observer of Islamic law 4 Pillars of Empire supports to the Sultan, helped him rule effectively State laws supersede Islamic law to rule over nonMuslim people better Meritocracy all land owned by state, given to people with good merits but not inheritable, after meritous person died the land went back to the state Ottomans open to promoting different ethnicities and nationalities to high positions, solely based on merit and accomplishment, similar to Mongol method Ottomans and the Europeans By 1700s all Ottoman initiative lost, their conquest momentum gone Decline of central authority weakened control Territory gradually lost to Europeans, chipped away piece at a time Trade control in Indian Ocean also gradually lost to Europeans Military system stagnates and starts to fall apart Military paid for by conquest loot, no conquest no loot Russian threat greatly increased and expanded into Ottoman territory Ottomans become “sick man of Europe” Slow process of disintegration Ottoman Response to the West Westernization Most Ottomans not fond of Western culture and shun it Military methods and tech are the exception to shun European military experts hired to help solve Ottoman military problems Safavid Persia: A Shi’ite State 15011736 One of the first modern blended societies, covers a large area with many different regions, nationalities and people groups Mostly Muslim but Buddhist influences also heavy Shi’ite Islam is unifying force for all the various peoples Safavid used a unique form of Shi’ite Islam to bring together broken remnants of Tamerlane Empire Started as a religious movement then grew to an empire Acted as a counter to the Ottomans, a very strong state, capital at Isfahan Shi’ite and Sunni Differences Shi’ite Believe in Mahdi, (future ruler descended from Muhammad) Did not trust Sunni interpretation of Quran Used more allegorical than literal Quran Ruler should be related to Muhammad Sunni More widespread form of Islam Literal interpretation of Quran Looser, less strict practitioners Shah Abbas r. 15871629 Increased hostilities towards Ottomans, gradual decline parallel to Ottoman decline
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