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Week 4 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes

by: Audrey Hernandez

Week 4 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes PHCL 2600

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Biology > PHCL 2600 > Week 4 Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Lecture Notes
Audrey Hernandez
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover the basics of cell pathology as discussed in week 4 of lectures.
Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology
Dr. Frederick Williams
Class Notes
Science, Biology, anatomy, Physiology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 4 Lecture Notes   Cell pathology     ❖ How diseases start   ➢ What factors into a cell reaction   ■ Age of cell  ● Mature cells have a better adaptability  ■ How well fed the cell is  ● Cells well supplied with glucose and oxygen will be able to adapt  better  ■ Health of the cell  ● Cells that are already weak or have been injured in the past face an  increased chance of cell death  ➢ How cells react to stress  ■ Adapt   ● Cells can change their shape while still remaining functional   ■ Injury  ● Stress drives cell beyond adaptation, causing reversible damage as  long a stress is removed  ● Signs of cell injury  ◆ Membrane damage  ➢ Ions can flood into the cell through rips, bringing in  more water and causing the cell to swell  ➢ Enzyme and K​  leakage is possible  ◆ Swelling mitochondria  ➢ Swelling due to ion imbalance and increased water  uptake  ◆ Swelling endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, or  ribosomes  ➢ Ribosomes will detach from the ER  ◆ Clumping of chromatin   ➢ This is the end game level and will likely result in  cell death  ➢ pH is lower than threshold necessary   ■ Death  ● Stress from injury persists and irreversible damage is done to cell  ● Types  ◆ Necrosis  ➢ Results from external factors  Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 4 Lecture Notes   ➢ Breakdown of organelles and coagulation of  proteins   ➢ Nuclear changes during  ■ Pyknosis  ● Shrinkage of nucleus   ■ Karyolysis  ● Chromatin disappears  ■ Karyorrhexis  ● Nucleus breaks up and is spat out of  the cell  ◆ Apoptosis  ➢ Is a controlled occurrence  ➢ Normally during embryo development  ➢ Helps eliminate dangerous cancer cells  ➢ Nucleus changes during  ■ Chromatins condenses, breaks up, and is  spat out  ■ Apoptotic bodies will form and are also  extruded  ➢ Some causes of cell stress  ■ Hypoxia  ● Lack of oxygen   ■ Biological  ● Bacteria, fungi, viruses   ■ Malnourishment   ■ Genetics   ■ Physical agents   ● Temperature  ● Trauma   ● Radiation  ■ Chemical agents   ● Drugs  ■ Immunologic reaction  ● System is destroying own cells  ➢ Forms of adaptation to stress   ■ Atrophy   ● Cells shrink or begin to break down to create new material to adapt  with   ● Can happen due to…   Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 4 Lecture Notes ◆ Not being used  ◆ Loss of blood flow / oxygen deficient  ◆ Denervation   ◆ Hormone deficiency   ● Atrophy usually happens with mature cells, sometimes cells can  just fail to develop  ◆ Agenesis  ➢ Organs fail to develop  ◆ Aplasia  ➢ Cells fail to develop  ◆ Hypoplasia  ➢ Number of cells needed for tissue, organ, or other to  form completely is not met  ■ Hypertrophy  ​ ● Increase in cell ​size, not number   ■ Hyperplasia  ​ ● Increase in cell ​ umber, not cell size  ■ Metaplasia  ● Replaces  one type of cell with another type of cell  ​ ● This is an a​ bnormal adaptation   ❖ Growth of abnormal cells  ➢ Dysplasia  ■ Not a form of adaptation   ■ There is a change in size of nuclei of cells  ■ Is a stage of cancer  ➢ Non­neoplasia  ■ Reversible and controlled  ➢ Neoplasia  ■ Irreversible and uncontrolled  ■ Competes will normal cells for resources   ■ Types  ● Benign  ◆ Harmless  ◆ Will resemble normal tissues  ◆ Cut off and remain localized  ● Malignant  ◆ Cancerous  ◆ Will not resemble normal cells  ◆ Continue to grow and invade nonlocal areas 


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