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ANTH 120 Lecture 14 - Geology & Dating

by: Klaire Rhodes

ANTH 120 Lecture 14 - Geology & Dating ANTH 120

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Anthropology > ANTH 120 > ANTH 120 Lecture 14 Geology Dating
Klaire Rhodes
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About this Document

These notes cover Dr. Pante's first lecture for Exam 3.
Human Origins & Variation
Dr. Michael Pante
Class Notes
anthroplogy, Geology, dating, primates, Human




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Klaire Rhodes on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 120 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Michael Pante in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Origins & Variation in Anthropology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
The Geological Framework for Evolution ● Evolution is not a linear process, much more complex ○ Chimps - last common ancestor = 6ma ○ Gorillas - LCA = 9ma ○ Anthropoids - LCA = 12 ma ● Microevolution - small scale changes over a few generations ● Macroevolution - long term changes in gene frequencies over multiple generations ● Temporal Frameworks for Evolution ○ During our lifespan as humans (<100yrs), we might experience/observe microevolution and extinction ○ Over the course of history (<10,000yrs), we see microevolution, extinction, and incipient speciation ○ Looking at prehistory (>10,000 to 4.6 billion yrs), we see speciation, extinction, and origin & diversification of higher taxonomic groups by looking at fossils ● Geologic Beginnings ○ 1600s - fossils were from organisms ○ Steno’s Laws of Stratigraphy ● Strata: layer of rock or sediment ● Stratigraphy: describing layers of rock or sediment ■ Steno’s Law of Superposition ● Strata are deposited in chronological order; rocks on bottom are older than those on top ■ Steno’s Law of Original Horizontality ● Strata are naturally deposited horizontally ○ Principle of Faunal Succession (William Smith, English surveyor, 1769-1839) ■ Stratum contain specific collection of fossils ■ Fossils succeed each other vertically in a specific, reliable order ○ James Hutton (1727-1797) ■ Uniformitarianism - geological process that are operating today are the same as those that occurred in the past ○ Charles Lyell (1797-1875) ■ Processes are slow and gradual ● “The present is the key to the past” ■ Confirmed Hutton’s observations and calculations ■ Led us to believe that the Earth was millions of years old, not thousands ● Olduvai Gorge - 2 million years of prehistory ● Geological Time - How old is old? ■ Precambrian: 4.6Ba - 542Ma ● Origin of solar system and earth, first single cellular organisms appear ■ Paleozoic: 543 - 252Ma ● First vertebrates and reptiles ■ Mesozoic: 252 - 65Ma ● First mammals, dinosaurs, and birds ■ Cenozoic: 65Ma - present ● Tertiary: ○ Paleocene: 66- 56Ma ■ first “proto” primates ○ Eocene: 56-34Ma ■ First true primates ○ Oligocene: 34- 23Ma ■ First higher primates (monkeys) ○ Miocene: 23-5.3Ma ■ First apes ○ Pliocene: 5.3- 2.6Ma ■ First bipedal primates ● Quaternary: ○ Pleistocene: 2.6-.1Ma ■ First people in Asia and Europe ○ Holocene: .1- present ■ First farmers and civilizations ○ Mass Extinction - KT Boundary - Cretaceous/Tertiary 65MA ● How can you tell how old it is? ○ Relative Dating - age of something relative to something else ■ Biostratigraphy (faunal correlation) - evolution of organisms through bones and teeth ● Between site comparisons ● Compares site of unknown date to “reference” site ● Marker taxa (index fossil) ○ Widespread and die out over large area at same time, evolve rapidly ○ Pig teeth ■ Lithostratigraphy - similarities in rocks and sediments ● Marker beds ○ Widespread, distinct mineral comp., easily recognizable ■ Fluorine - absorption of chemicals by fossils through bones ● Within site compositions ● Looking at fluorine content in bones ○ More fluorine in older bones ● Pilt Down Hoax - 1953 ■ Cultural - changes in artifacts through time ■ Geomagnetic reversals - shifts in magnetic field through sedimentary rock ● Reversals in earth’s magnetic field creates stratigraphic layers ○ Chron: long periods of the same polarity ○ Subchron: shorter reversals within the chron ○ Absolute Dating - exact age (in years) ■ Dendrochronology - tree growth ● Rings correspond to a year, and the pattern corresponds to the local environment ■ Radiometric Dating ○ Measures radioactive decay ○ Measures accumulation of radiation ● Radiocarbon - carbon-14 in organic material ○ C-14 is produced in atmosphere, oxidized to form CO2, eventually decays into Nitrogen-14 ○ 5,730 half life ○ Requires organic material ■ Charcoal , bones, basketry ● Radiopotassium - potassium- 40 and argon-40 in volcanic rock ○ 1.3 Billion half life ● Electron spin resonance - measures amount of trapped electrons that accumulate in defects within crystalline substances since deposit ■ Thermoluminescence - trapped energy in sediment, stone, and ceramics ● Electrons accumulate in defects of mineral’s crystalline structure ● Material that has been superheated will reset the clock to zero (volcanic, meteorite craters, burned flint) ○ test : know whether absolute or relative, what they’re applied to, and what age ranges they would be used


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