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CHEM 1307 Chapter 3

by: Kyle A. Headen

CHEM 1307 Chapter 3 CHEM 1307

Kyle A. Headen
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Overall Idea Highlighted Materials that help you study on for Midterm exam 1 and overall concept you will need to remember for Midterm Exam 2
Experimental Principles of Chemistry 1
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle A. Headen on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1307 at Texas Tech University taught by Whittlesey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Experimental Principles of Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Texas Tech University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Chapter3-Notes Formula: An elementisasubstance that ismade up of onlyonetype of atom(each ofwhich has the same numberof protons). Acompound is asubstance thatcontains atoms ofmore than oneelement. A puresubstancecan beeither an element oracompound. Ex: Ex 2: GoldorAu is anelement. Hydrogen Peroxidewillbecreated -H2O2 It can be madeupof acontinuousnetworkof atomsall held togetherby strongbonds, or it can exist as individualgroupsof atomsthat form identical particles called molecules, in which the atomsare held togetherby strongbondsbut themolecules interact with each otheronly weakly. Ex: O3orOzoneis a typeofmolecule A molecular formulalists thenumberof atomsof each element that are in a single molecule. Example: N2is themolecular formulaforthemost commonformof theelement nitrogen, whichexists as identical particles, each ofwhich contains twoatoms ofnitrogen. Forsubstancesthat are madeupof atomsthat form acontinuousnetwork,thechemical formulalists thesmallest wholenumberratio ofthe atomsof each element. This is called an empirical formula. *Empirical FormulaVs MolecularFormula Ex A:Empirical Formulaof Ex B:MolecularFormula CHorC1H1 Hydrocarbon C6H6or Benzene IonicCompounds: Atomsofelements on theright of theperiodic table tend to gain electrons to formanions. Atomsofelements on theleft oftheperiodic table tend to loseelectrons to formcations. Atomson thefarleft and farright of theperiodic table tendto gain orlose electrons so that they have thesamenumberas aneutral noblegas. Group 1 =1+ion charge or1 valence electrons total(Li, Na,K and etc. in Group 1A) Group 2 =2+ion charge or2 valence electrons total(Be,Mg, Caand etc. in Group 2A) Group 13= 3+ion chargeor 3valence electrons total(B, Al,Ga and etc. in Group 3A) Group 14= 4+or-4ion charge or4 valence electrons total (C,Si, Ge and etc. in group 4A) Group 15= -3ion charge or 5 valenceelectrons total(N,P, As,and etc. with group 5A) Group 16= -2ion charge or6 valenceelectrons total(O, S,Se andetc. within group6A) Group 17= -1ion charge or7 electrons valence total(F, Cl, Br, I and etc. within group7A) Group 18= 0ion chargeornoblegases or 8electrons valence totalalso Full Valence is complete. (including He orHelium, Ne, Ar, Kr,and etc. in Group 8A.)  Atomsin Group 1 loseoneelectron to form cations with a1+charge.  Atomsin Group 2 losetwo electrons to formcations with a2+charge.  Atomsin Group 17gain oneelectron to formanions witha 1-charge.  Atomsin Group 16gain twoelectrons to formanions with a2-charge. Ioniccompoundsaremadeup ofboth cations and anions,and thenumberof positivecharges must equalthe numberof negativecharges. Ex: NaClorNa+= PositiveSodiumIon Cl- =Negative ChlorineIonor SodiumChloride(aka)Table Salt is an ionic compound. Transition metals andmain group metals are located in thecenter of theperiodic chart, farfromthe noblegases. It is very difficultto add orremove alarge numberof electrons fromasingle atom, andso thesemetals generally havealow positivecharge in their ioniccompounds(1+,2+, or3+). Manytransition metals andmain group metals can formseveral ions that havedifferentcharges, depending uponthecompound. Iron (Fe)can formFe2+ ionsor Fe3+ions. Polyatomicionsare madeup of clusters of atomsthat havean overall charge. Polyatomicionsare madeup of clusters of atomsthat havean overall charge. NH4+is theammoniumion. SO42-is thesulfateion. (*Memorizethe names, formulas,and charges of all of the polyatomic ions in Table 3.5 on p. 99.) NamingIonicCompounds: Forpurposesof namingonly, all metals are usually treated as cations. Forpurposesof namingonly, an ioniccompoundis any combination ofa metalora knowncation (such as NH4+)with anonmetalora knownanion(suchas NO3-). An element on thefarleft orfarright of theperiodic chart formsthesame ion in almost all of its compounds(eg.Naalmost alwaysexists as Na+in acompound,CaformsCa2+, Cl formsCl-,etc.). Elements in thecenter of theperiodic chart can form avariety of ions (Fecan exist as Fe2+orFe3+; Sn as Sn2+orSn4+;etc.) Thename ofthecation is always given first and theanion is last. Forcations that alwayshavethe samecharge: Write thenameof thecation and thename oftheanion. Ifthe cation is a metal, usethenameof themetal. Ifthe anion is asingle nonmetal, usetheending "-ide" (eg. chloride forCl-, oxide forO2-,etc.) Formetal cations thatdo not always havethesamecharge: Write thenameof themetal cation, followedby aRoman numeralin parentheses to showthe charge on thecation, and then thenameof theanion. Usetheknownchargeon theanion to determine thecharge onthe metalcation. Ex: Fe2(SO4)3 iron(III)sulfate CaSO4 calcium sulfate Formetal cations thatdo not always havethesamecharge(metals in themiddleof theperiodic chart), write thenameofthe metalcation, followed bya Romannumeralin parentheses to showthecharge on thecation. 2) Formetal cations thatalways havethesamecharge (Groups1,2, and 3),writethenameof the metal cation, withoutaRoman numeral. A compoundin which themetalcation has thehighercharge will havetheending "-ic" on theroot for theLatin nameofthe metal. A compoundin which themetalcation has thelowercharge will havetheending "-ous"onthe rootfor theLatin nameofthe metal. Themost commonions forcopperareCu+ andCu2+ New system Old system Cu2O copper(I)oxide cuprousoxide CuO copper(II)oxide cupric oxide Themost commonions foriron are Fe2+andFe3+ New system Old system FeO iron(II)oxide ferrous oxide Fe2O3 iron(III)oxide ferric oxide Electronegativity: In general: Electronegativity increases going fromleft to right across arow in theperiodic chart. Electronegativity increases going frombottomto top in acolumn in theperiodic chart. Known: Fluorine(#9)is themost electronegativeelement. Cesium(#55)isthe leastelectronegativeelement. *ElectronegativityPeriodicTableChart: NamingBinaryNonmetalsCompounds: Thefollowing rules donot generally apply to compoundscontaininghydrogen. Write thenameof theleast electronegative element first. Write thenameof themost electronegative element as if it werean anion ("-ide" ending). Usenumerical prefixes to indicate howmany atomsof each element are present. Do not usetheprefix "mono-"withthefirst element. Ex: NO nitrogen monoxide(nitricoxide) NO2 nitrogen dioxide N2O dinitrogen monoxide(nitrousoxide) N2O3 dinitrogen trioxide N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide NamingAcids: Acids are madeupof H+ cations andan anion. Foracids that contain hydrogenand ahalide anion, thenameis formed by writing theprefix “hydro” and replacing the“–ide” ending of theanion with "-icacid”. EX: Formula Anion Acid Name HF fluorideanion hydrofluoricacid HCl chloride anion hydrochloricacid HBr bromideanion hydrobromicacid HI iodide anion hydriodicacid Foracids in whichthe anion is acommon “oxo-anion”(an anion madeup ofan element with oxygen atomsattached) that has an “ate” ending, thenameis formedby adding theending "-icacid" to aroot nameforthe element. “-ate”anion = “-ic acid” EX: Formula Anion Acid Name HClO3 chlorateanion chloric acid HNO3 nitrate anion nitric acid H2CO3 carbonateanion carbonicacid H3BO3 borateanion boricacid H2SO4 sulfateanion sulfuricacid H3PO4 phosphateanion phosphoricacid Foracids in whichthe anion is an oxo-anionthat has an “ite” ending, thenameis formedby addingthe ending ”-ousacid" to aroot namefortheelement. “-ite” anion = “-ousacid” Formula Anion Acid Name HClO2 chlorite anion chlorous acid HNO2 nitrite anion nitrous acid H2SO3 sulfiteanion sulfurousacid Someelements can formmorethan twooxo-anions. In thesecases theonewith themost oxygensis given theprefix “per-”and theonewith thefewest oxygens is given the prefix“hypo-”. Formula Anion Acid Name HClO4 perchlorate anion perchloric acid HClO3 chlorate anion chloric acid HClO2 chlorite anion chlorous acid HClO hypochloriteanion hypochlorousacid AnionEnding Acid Ending per- -ate per- -icacid -ate -icacid -ite -ousacid hypo- -ite hypo- -ousacid Writinga Formulafroma Name: Forbinary nonmetalcompounds: Thenumerical prefixes will tell you howmanyof each element is present. Ifthere is noprefix, assumethat there is oneof that element. Forionic compounds: You mustknowthecharges on all oftheions. Write downtheions with their charges, anddetermine thesmallest numberofeach ion that is needed so that thetotalnumberofpositivecharges is equal to thetotalnumberofnegative charges. Foracids: Figureout thecharge on theanion. Write downthenumberofH+ ions that are needed to balance thenumberofnegative charges on the anion.


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