General Chemistry Review
General Chemistry Review Chem 1211K
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sayali Punyarthi on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1211K at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Dr. Angus Wilkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Chapter 1: General Chemistry John Dalton’s Theory: o Elements are composed of atoms o All atoms in a given element are identical o Atoms of one element are different than atoms of another element o Atoms are neither create nor destroyed in chemical reactions o Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element chemically combine Classification of Matter o States of Matter Solids, liquids, gases, and aqueous solutions o Pure substances are either elements or compounds Aqueous: dissolved in water Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler parts Compounds are made of 2 or more elements. o Mixtures Heterogeneous v. Homogenous Heterogeneous: does not have the same properties, appearance or composition throughout Homogenous: solutions, elements, and compounds Properties and Changes of Matter o Physical Properties can be observed without changing the identity or composition. Color, odor, harness, etc. o Chemical properties describe how a substance can change Flammability, reactivity o Physical changes: changes appearance NO composition Ripping, evaporating, boiling, squeezing, cutting o Chemical changes: changes to the composition. A new substance is created. Burning, reacting, oxidizing Law of Definite Proportions o Proust’s Law Stats that a chemical compound has a set proportion of elements by volume regardless of the amount of the compound No matter what amount of water you have, there will always be a ration of hydrogen making up 1/9 of the mass whereas oxygen will make up 8/9 of the mass, whether the sample size is a drop of water or a lake Law of Multiple Proportions o When elements combine, they combine in a ration of small whole numbers Especially important for elements that can combine to form more than one type of compound Molecules o Molecules; specific combination of 2 or more atoms bound tightly together o Chemical formula: uses chemical symbols and subscripts to show that elements are in the compound o Diatomic molecule: made of just 2 atoms (exists naturally in the state); Br, I, C,Cl,H, O,F o Molecular compounds: made up of 2 nonmetals Ions o Many atoms gain or lose electrons to end up with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas o Remember, changing the number of electrons does not change the identity of the atom Identity of the atom is determined the number of protons o Groups 1, 2, 3 lose electrons and become cations o Groups `15, 16, 17 gain electrons and become anions
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