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Jour 413 The Dark Ages of Journalism

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Jour 413 The Dark Ages of Journalism 413

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These notes were about how the political parties changed over time. There have been many different variations of Republicans and Democrats through each time period that actually change the meaning ...
History of Journalism
Gregory Borchard
Class Notes
federalists, Republicans, Whigs, Frederick, douglas, french, revolution, post, Office, ACT, federalist, papers, alien, and, Sedition, acts, age, Of, Jackson
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebel_Athlete on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 413 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Gregory Borchard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see History of Journalism in JOUR at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Tuesday, September 20, y Jour 413 The Dark Ages of Journalism SUMMARY These notes were about how the political parties changed over time. There have been many  different variations of Republicans and Democrats through each time period that actually  change the meaning of each party as the years go by. There was a lot of opposition and debate  when it came to the Federalist papers time period because you were either a federalist or a  republican, there was no middle ground. The Alien and Sedition acts of 1798 happened  because of the French Revolution and the French were actually responsible for creating a press that was sort of like a watchdog. During the Jackson era slavery was a highly contested subject  and important people such as Frederick Douglas showed that freedom for slaves were  necessary. His accurate account of his life propelled others like himself to want to become free  as well as people who were never enslaved to realize that slavery was a bad practice. Articles of Confederation ­ First Party System (1792­1824) ­ Federalists/national Republicans  ­ power should rest in the collective power of the government. ­ (Alexander Hamilton) ­ Anti­federalists/Republicans  ­ (power should rest in the individual states)  ­ (Thomas Jefferson) Second Party System (1828-1854) ­ Federalists turned into Whigs ­ Republicans  ­ anti federalists turned to democrats  - Third party system (1854-1890’s) ­Whigs turned to democrats 1 Tuesday, September 20, y The Federalist papers 1787 ­The partisan arguments were between Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John  Jay.  ­ Their Purpose was to gain support for the constitution and this was published in the  New York Papers.  ­ In The Articles of Confederation there is barely any mention of the word ‘democracy’.  There is only a mention of a Republic.  Post Office Act of 1792 ­ The Post Master was the ultimate gatekeeper of all information. They controlled what  came in and what came out.  ­ This Act was signed into law by George Washington.  ­ They allowed free exchange of newspapers between printers as well as allowing  national growth to occur and privacy of mail to be insured.  ­ The Freedom of information is equivalent to democratic discourse.  ­ There was no way for a person to be in the middle of both extremists—the federalist  and the democrats. This is why this is called the Dark Ages of American Journalism.  This is also referred to our own voice that we have these days. There really isn’t a  middle ground when it comes to politics or our media coverage. Federalists & Republicans ­ The Editor for the Federalists was John Fenno while the Republicans was Phillip  Freneau. ­ The Paper for the Federalists was called the Gazette of the United States and the  Republicans was the National Gazette. ­ Freneau was known as the Poet of the Revolution. ­ Hamilton was the Federalist Treasurer. He is currently depicted on the Ten Dollar bill. 2 Tuesday, September 20, y The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 ­ John Fenno signed into law the alien and sedition acts. These restricted the freedom  of information as well as immigration. John Freneau, to no surprise, opposed this. The Naturalization Act (June 18th, 1798) ­ This act made it harder for immigrants to become a citizen.  Enemy Alien Act ­ Allows the president to to imprison and deport non­citizens who end up being dangerous  for the country they are residing in.  Sedition Act  ­ criminalized making false statements that were inherently critical to the federal  government.  The French Revolution 1789-1799 ­ For every hour of every day for 10 years, a head was chopped off in France.  ­ There surmounts a sense of nationalism with anti­french enthusiasm growing.  ­ Political Opposition is equal to disloyalty.  ­ this was a way to try and control what people could say, and what they could do. The Fourth Estate—‘The Press Watchdog’ 1. Clergy 2. Nobility 3. People ­ The press emerges as the independent body that looks out for the people. The Fourth Estate talks about the press being there for the citizens to help report what is going  on, sort of like a watch dog.  Democracy in America 1835­1840 ­ This was a written work by Alexis de Tocqueville stating that if other European  countries want to have this ‘Fourth Estate’ then each country must have a  press.  The Age of Jackson (Andrew Jackson to James Buchanan) ­ Was a general of 1812 and was a popular hero. He was the champion of the  common man and was able to expand suffrage and develop the spoils system.  ­ This era has the best and worst qualities of American History.  ­ Andrew Jackson believed wholeheartedly in the constitution.  3 Tuesday, September 20, y ­ The Constitution codified slavery even though the country as a whole didn’t want to  be slaves to Britain. The government had to compromise with the southern states in order to have them be a part of their union.  ­ The 3/5ths clause was created and was what helped the compromise of the north and south happen.  Frederick Douglass (1818­1895) ­ He was born as a slave and wrote a narrative about his life.  ­ He was sent to baltimore to live as a house boy with Hugh and Sophia Auld when  he was 8 years old.  ­ The new mistress taught him the alphabet. (The mistress was the wife) ­ With this power he was able to escape slavery at the age of 20 in 1838.  ­ He becomes friends with William Lloyd Garrison who was known as the Liberator. ­ Douglas gives lectures under the sponsor of Garrison and people loved how he  lectured so well that they wanted him to prove how he became who he was today.  ­ CIVIL WAR ­ Douglas served as Lincoln’s advisor and fights for the changes in the  constitution. he told Lincoln that if he wanted to win the Civil war he would have  to get the slavery population to like him.  The Election of 1800 ­ Regarded as the ugliest election of all time.  ­ was between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. ­ The things that we can take from this election is that each candidate purposely talked horribly of each other to try and convince the people who were the worst of the two.  The candidates tried to instill fear into their constituents. This is sort of how we do  politics today. The political campaigns that we see in our time depict the other as  someone who wont take care of the country. 4


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