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Chemistry 141 Week 3

by: Sydney

Chemistry 141 Week 3 CHM141

Marketplace > Saint Martin's University > Chemistry > CHM141 > Chemistry 141 Week 3

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About this Document

these notes go over Atomic theory, subatomic particles of atom, and an intro to covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding.
General Chemistry
Brandy R Fox
Class Notes
atomictheory, Chemistry, Chemical Bonding
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM141 at Saint Martin's University taught by Brandy R Fox in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Saint Martin's University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Monday 9/12  Atomic theory of matter, Atomic structure, Scientific method   Real scientific method builds on itself. If a hypothesis is accepted and contribute to body of  knowledge.   Law​­If testing yields constant observations  Theory​­ If supporting same hypothesis (cannot prove) supports it.     History of the atom  Democritus (460­390 BC) ​“Atomos” building blocks  Plato/ Aristotle­​ Theory without atomos, Atomic view of matter faded for 100’s of years   ​Sir Isaac Newton (1642­1727)­  ​ Air is something invisible but in constant motion     ­Brought back atomic theory.   Dalton​­ “Grandfather of Chemistry” linked idea of atom to elements.  ­Quantified atomic theory.  1.Each element composed of atoms  2. Each atom is the same in the element, different from all other elements  3. Elements of one atom can not be changed into atoms of a different element  4. Compounds are formed when atoms combine. Compounds always have same composition.   ↳ Predicted when A and B for compound will have small whole numbers. No A​ 3.45​​Law of  multiple proportions  ­Put together first table of related masses of the elements  1858­ Chemists solved problem of correct determination of molecular formulas and atomic  masses.     Atoms  ­If you take apart atom, the subatomic parts to not act like the element  J.J Thomson­​With cathode ray found ray bent. There must be a magnetic field  ­When he put negative/positive plates, it bent towards positive meaning the force was negatively  charged.   ­Forced ray to go straight to calculate mass to charge ration  ­ray was identical for any cathode­Electrons are universal  Millikan­​Oil drop experiment. Measured rate of oil droplets falling on negatively charged plate.  Found they were all multiples, knew charge so could calculate mass.   Pudding model­Negative particles in large positive field.  ↳To test: Shot positive charge though gold foil. Expected to see little change in path.  After testing. Some shot back at him.   ↳Nucleus proposed   ­Cloud of electrons around large lump of positive particles.        Particle  Charge  Mass  P Proton  1.602 x 10​ ­19  1.0073 amu  N Neutron  0  1.0087 amu  e​ Electron  ­1.602 x 10​ ­19  5.486 x 10​ ­4  Atoms have charges of equal and opposite amounts  ­  Every atom is neutral overall #p=#e​ All mass is in the center because P+N reside in nucleus  ­e​ are attracted to positive charge  Diameter of atom  Between 1 x 10​  to  5 x 10​ ­10  ­10​ ­4​ Angstrom ​ Å=1 ​ 0​ m ​o atom is between 1­5 Å ​  nucleus between 1 ​ 0​ ​    Atom is mostly empty space. Nucleu is dense, 10​  to 10​  g/cm​13​ 14​ 3  Atomic number­​ determined by number of protons  Isotopes­​ 2 atoms with same # of protons, different # of neutrons  Or­ 2 atoms of same element with different mass.  12​C is carbon 12. Top number is atomic mass, #p+#n. Bottom number is atomic number  6​ Atomic mass­​ (or atomic weight) is a weighted average. Abundance x mass of isotope    Ion­​ When #p ≠ #e properties very different from that of parent  Want to be like noble gas with full valence electrons  anion​­when add electrons becomes more negative  Cation­ ​ when subtract electrons becomes more positive  Bonding   ­​ Covalent­​2 nonmetals sharing e​ Molecular compound.  Ionic­ ​Usually metal and nonmetal cation and anion. Exchange of electrons electrostatic  attraction between charged species.   Metallic­ 2​  metals. “Sea of electrons” solid metal  Valence electrons­ ​All involve outer electrons  Ionic compounds  NaCl​­​Attracted. Lattice where cation surrounded by anions. All connected.   ­Report formula with smallest ration  Molecular compounds  ­Discrete molecules. Could pick up a compound.. Not a lattice  ­Report formula in the number of each type of element  Octet rule:​ Atoms tend to gain/lose/share e​ until surrounded by 8. (2 for H, Li, B)    Na­1 valence electron  Lewis dot structure ­  Na∙  + ​ Would like to form 1​ cation by losing it’s 1 valence electron  Knowing that compound must be neutral can deduce charge of unknown.   4+  PtCl​4​Know Cl is negative, wants to gain an electron so Pt is ​      


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