PSY 2301 - Week 3 Notes
PSY 2301 - Week 3 Notes Psy 2301
Popular in Child Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 2301 at Texas Tech University taught by Jessica Hoffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
PSY 2301 – Child Psychology 09/12/2016 ▯ Gene Environment Interaction Epigenetic o Continual bidirectional exchanges between one’s genotype and one’s environmental conditions Affects how an individual acts in their environment and why they choose the environment that they’re in ▯ Nature vs Nurture Twin Studies o Used to determine the genetic basis for a given trait o Overall, MZ twins show more similarities than DZ twins o MZ twins reared apart Adoption Studies o Examine similarities and differences between the child and adoptive/biological parents Some traits are seen as child being more like biological parent even though they’ve never met them before ▯ Conception Conception o Union of a sperm and an ovum Ova o Each month an egg is released and is ready to be fertilized by a sperm cell Sperm o Several million sperm are ejaculated but only 1/1000 will reach the ovum Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) o About 50% ▯ Infertility and ART Causes of infertility among men o Low sperm count o Deformed sperm Could be due to infection or age o Poor ability of the sperm to swim to the ovum (motility issues) o Infectious diseases o Chronic diseases o Injury of the testes o Autoimmune responses Causes of infertility among women o Irregular ovulation Difficulty when the egg is being released o Declining levels of estrogen and progesterone that occur with aging and may prevent ovum from becoming fertilized or from remaining implanted in the uterus o Inflammation of the tissue sloughed off during menstruation (endometriosis) o Obstructions or malfunctions of the reproductive tract, often caused by infection or disease Pelvic inflammatory disease caused by untreated STD’s Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) o Artificial (intrauterine) insemination Can be done with donor sperm o In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Test tube babies Fertilization takes place outside of womb Egg gets implanted in uterus with hope of successful pregnancy o Donor IVF Egg or sperm or both can be donated Embryonic transplant o Surrogate Legal complications With or without donor egg If issue with uterus (scar tissue) Or no egg production o Adoption Not ART Just another way for a family to have kids The younger that you adopt, the better the attachment relationships with the child ▯ ▯ Ch. 3 Prenatal Development ▯ Prenatal growth 3 period of prenatal growth o germinal (weeks 1-2) o embryonic (weeks 3-8) o fetal (weeks 9-38) Germinal o 1-2 weeks after conception o time between implantation and conception o sex is determined but can’t be identified by dr yet o blastocyst zygote has the form of a sphere of cells surrounding a cavity of fluid o embryonic disk inner part of the blastocyst that differentiates into the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm of embryo o trophoblast outer part of the blastocyst from which the amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical cord develop o placenta organ connected to the uterine wall which serves as a relay station between mother and fetus for the exchange of nutrients and waste o umbilical cord tube that connects the fetus to the flacenta ▯ ▯ PSY 2301 – Child Psychology 09/19/2016 ▯ Prenatal Growth Pregnancy o Cannot be confirmed until after implantation o 1/3 of pregnancies result in a miscarriage due date o determined by last menstrual period (LMP) o small percentage are born on due date Cephalocaudal growth pattern o developing from head to tail Proximodorsal growth pattern o Developing from the inside to the extremities; from the axis outward Embryonic period o Weeks 3-8 o Embryo o Characterized by the development of the major organ systems o Neural tube – develops into brain and spinal cord o Weighs about 1 gram (1/13 of an ounce) and 1 inch long 3 layers of the embryo o endoderm (innermost) produces the liver, pancreas, digestive and respiratory systems o mesoderm (middle) produces muscular, skeletal, cardiovascular, and lymphatic systems, kidneys, and connective tissues o ectoderm (outermost) produces the epidermis, nervous system, sensory organs, hair follicles, nails and teeth Embryonic period o Formation of the Head Neural tube Blood vessel for heart pulsates Limbs Teeth buds Bone cells Facial features Amniotic sac o Contains the embryo and fetus Amniotic fluid o Fluid within the amniotic sac that suspends and protects the fetus Functions of the placenta: o Permits fetus to exchange nutrients and waste with mother o Contains a membrane that acts a s a filter allowing certain substances to pass through it o Secretes hormones that prepare breasts for nursing and stimulate contractions that prompt childbirth Fetal period o 9 week after conception until birth o the third month: development of sex organs ultrasound weighs 3 ounces and about 3 inches long o middle three months periods of wakefulness and sleep perceives light and sounds increase in brain size age of viability weights about 20 oz .14 inches o last three months organs continue to mature fatty layer beneath the skin lungs expand and contract to practice breathing formation of folds in the cortex of the brain rapid weight gain Environmental influences o Maternal nutrition Malnutrition linked with low birth weight, stunted growth, cognitive deficiencies, behavioral problems Maternal obesity linked with higher risk of stillbirth and neural tube defects Need protein, vitamins, zinc, iron, cobalt, calcium, folic acid, and calories Recommended weight gain depends on pre pregnancy weight o Teratogen Anything that can harm prenatal development and result in birth defects or death Ex. Drugs, viruses, pollutants, chemical 3 important factors in determining risk timing of exposure amount of exposure threshold effect o point at which a teratogen will ecome harmful dose, timing, frequency, and other teratogens can influence threshold genetic vulnerability genes of the fetus may create increased risk o poor metabolism for alcohol maternal genes can also create increased risk o maternal allele resulting in low levels of folic acid, Rh factor common teratogens STD’s Influenza, rubella Pre-eclampsia Rh incompatibility Accutane, thalidomide antibiotics, hormones, vitamins Heroin and methadone, marijuana, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, cigarettes Lead, mercury, cadmium, selenium, zinc Stress o Fetal Alcohol syndrome Associated with abnormal facial characteristics slow physical growth na d intellectual disability Later in pregnancy, exposure to alcohol may result in behavioral effects such as hyperactivity, poor concentration, and slow learning ▯ ▯ PSY 2301 – Child Psychology 09/19/2016 ▯ Ch. 4 ▯ Birth and the Newborn Baby ▯ Birth Prior to birth: o Fetus shifts and settles head down in the uterus o Braxton-Hicks contractions o Amniotic sac bursts releasing the amniotic fluid (water breaking) o Fetal hormones stimulate release of protasglandins o Oxytocin stimulates strong contractions 3 stages of birth o labor Lasts for 12 hours on average for the first child Average of 7 hours for second child Uterine contractions help the cervix to dilate to 10 cm Hospital when 4-5 minutes apart Fetal monitoring Transition- movement of head into the birth canal o Delivery Can last minutes to hours◦ Culminates in the birth of the neonate◦ Crowning- head emerges from birth canal ◦ Upon birth, mucus is suctioned from the baby’s airway to allow for breathing Umbilical cord is clamped and severed o Afterbirth Can last minutes to hours Placenta separates from the uterus and is expelled through the birth canal o Full term 40 weeks; 9 months average 7 ½ pounds 20 inches Assistance during childbirth o Anesthesia- epidural to alleviate pain o Hypnosis o Biofeedback o Prepared childbirth Lamaze method o Midwife o Doula Cesarean Section (C-Section) o ◦ Baby delivered through an incision in the abdomen o 1/3 of births in U.S. o Indicated when: Mother has small pelvis Maternal weakness or fatigue Baby is too large Baby is in distress o Benefits: Can prevent transmission of diseases such as HIV Safer if fetus is positioned incorrectly (e.g., breeched) Reduction in pain Control the date of birth Alternatives to the hospital o Birthing centers 5% of US births o Home births Less than 1% Birth Problems o Oxygen Deprivation Anoxia- lack of oxygen Hypoxia- less oxygen than is required Consequences: Impair CNS development Cognitive and motor problems, cerebral palsy, psychological disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) Damage to hippocampus Problems in learning and memory o Preterm 3 or more weeks before due date o low birthweight less than 5 ½ pounds at birth o small for gestational age/small for date birthweight significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception o risk factors for preterm of SFD babies smoking maternal drug use malnutrition o consequences delays in learning; poorer school performance attention problems delayed motor development Infant mortality rate o 7.1 in 1000 live births o lack of oxygen and nutrition maternal mortality rate o 1 in 2400 o world: bleeding, infections, high blood pressure Postpartum psychological problems o Baby blues Typically lasts up to 10 days o Postpartum depression PPD 1/7 women will experience characterized by sadness, hopelessness, worthlessness, changes in appetite and sleep, difficulty concentrating, anhedonia o postpartum psychosis 1/1000 delusions o postpartum anxiety very common Assessing neonates o Agpar scale Five vital signs Appearance – color Pulse – heart rate Grimace – reflex irritability Activity – muscle tone Respiration – breathing Each given a score of 0, 1, 0r 2 Y or higher is good o Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale NBAS Measure of newborn responsiveness, including 46 behaviors and reflexes o Reflex An involuntary response to a stimulus Infants have reflexes that Maintain oxygen supply Maintain constant body temperature Manage feeding o Other reflexes Swimming Moving arms and legs in swimming motion Moro Response to a sudden change Palmar grasp Grasping objects in palm Stepping Taking steps when held upright Babinski Fan toes when stroke feet Tonic-neck Turn head and extend arm and leg on that side, flex other limbs Neonate sense o Vision Poor visual acuity Near-sighted Least developed sense at birth o Hearing Begin responding to sound in womb More likely to respond to high pitched sounds Preference for mothers voices o Smell Can discriminate distinct odors Can recognize mother o Taste Sensitive to different tastes Preference for sweet o Touch and pain Important for learning and communication Believe neonates do experience pain Neonate sleep o 16 hours per day; reduces over time o by 6-12 months, sleeping through the night o REM sleep At birth 50 % By 6 months 30% Sudden Infant Death Syndrome o 2000 – 3000 infants die each year o more common among 2-4 month olds sleep on stomach or side premature, low birth weight babies males lower ses families bottle fed babies African American babies Babies of teen mothers Babies of mothers who use substances o Recommendations Sleep on back Sleep on firm surface Keep soft objects, loose bedding out of crib Do not sleep in same bed as parents Breastfeeding Well checks with pediatrician Keep away from smokers Do not let get too hot Offer pacifier Do not use objects that advertise reduction in risk of SIDS
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