Organic Chemistry 231 Week 3 Notes
Organic Chemistry 231 Week 3 Notes CHEM 231
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jernelle John on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 231 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Monique Koppel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Monday, September 19, y Week 3 Notes Organic Chemistry To stabilize a negative charge on an acid (A) • negative charge should be on the most electronegative atom • negative charge should be on the larger atom • negative charge should be on the orbital with the most s character (sp orbital has more s character (50% s character) than sp2 (33% s character) or sp3 (25% s character) orbitals • inductive effect other atoms besides the atom with the negative charge apart of the compound that are more electronegative are more stable than atoms on apart compound that are less electronegative Lewis acidbase reactions a reaction which contain two reactants (the acid and the base) and form one product through covalent bonding • can be protic (proton donor) or antiprotic (proton acceptor) BrønstedLowry reactions are always protic (proton donors) • Lewis Acid a species that can form a new covalent bond by accepting a pair of electrons and gaining a negative charge • Lewis Base a species that can form a new covalent bond by giving away a pair of electrons and gaining a positive charge Determining the equilibrium of an acid base reaction • compare the pKa values of the acid and the conjugate acid the acid with the larger pKa value is the weaker acid • equilibrium will always favor the side of the weaker acid Determining the Strength of an acid A stronger acid is 1 Monday, September 19, y • the larger compound • the more electronegative compound • compound with hybridization • acid that is influenced by the inductive effect pulling electrons towards one side of a compound using other atoms apart of the compound • acid with more resonance IUPAC Naming of a compound • determine the longest Carbon chain naming alkanes (single bonded carbon chain): • methane (1 carbon), • ethane (2 carbon), • propane (3 carbon), • butane (4 carbon), • pentane (5 carbon), • hexane (6 carbon), • heptane (7 carbon), • octane (8 carbon), • nonane (9 carbon), • decane (10 carbon) • make a list of the substituents/alkyles from that carbon chain alkyles side groups that come off from the alkane group • methyl (1 carbon) 2 Monday, September 19, y • ethyl (2 carbon) • propyl (3 carbon) • butyl (4 carbon) • pentyl (5 carbon) • hexyl (6 carbon) • heptyl (7 carbon) • octyl (8 carbon) • nonyl (9 carbon) • decyl (10 carbon) alphabetize the carbon chain adding the number at which carbon from the main carbon chain the alkyl group comes off from • put it all together! starting with the alphabetized alkyl groups and ending with the alkane name • ex. longest chain contains 5 carbons (pentane) chain contains 2 substituents (2 methyl groups) Finale Name: 2,3 dimethylpentane • “di”methyl because there are 2 methyl groups tri before three of the same alkyl groups tetra before four of the same alkyl groups • Another example longest chain contains 8 carbons (octane) 3 Monday, September 19, y chain contains 2 substituents • one methyl group • one ethyl group • e comes before m Final Name: 5ethyl2methyloctane • Unsaturation compounds that contain a double bond and/or triple bond if the carbon chain contains a double bond than it is a alkene group and the parent chain will end in ene (methene, ethene, propene, butene…) if the carbon chain contains a triple bond than it is an alkyne group and the parent chain will end in yne (methyne, ethyne, propyne) ex. • longest chain has 6 carbons hexene • the double bond is contained on the 3rd carbon 3hexene • the substituent is on the 3rd carbon methyl • Full Name: 3methyl3hexene • cyclo carbon chains carbons that are connected on all sides add cyclo win front of alkane or alkene the cycloalkane on the right is cyclohexane NonIUPAC naming aka common naming 4 Monday, September 19, y • akyl groups ending in “iso” an akyl group that contains a carbon chain with two methyl groups on each side of it (Y shaped) • ex. nonIUPAC naming: 4isopropylheptane • IUPAC naming: 4ethyl(1methyl) heptane • alkyl groups ending in “sec” carbon substituent with a methyl group on one side and ethyl group on the other • ex. nonIUPAC naming: 5secbutylnonane • IUPAC naiming: 5propyl (1methyl) nonane • alkyl groups ending in “tert” contain three methyl groups off of the first carbon substituent ex. nonIUPAC naming: 4tbutlyoctane IUPAC naming: 4ethyl (1,1 dimetyl) octane 5
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