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PSY 101

by: Andrej Sodoma
Andrej Sodoma
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

These notes cover Dr. Nelson's lecture held on 9/22/16.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Elizabeth Nelson
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrej Sodoma on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Thursday 9/22/16 lecture Opening Q: What does it mean to think? Discussion: It is how we solve problems. Facts: It is known as cognition, which means the action of processing our senses, experiences,  etc. Steps of how we think: I.) Accessing representations of sensory experiences that are stored in memory and  can be achieved for use. A. Natural concepts: a concept that is acquired through everyday experiences.  B. Formal concepts: a concept that is defined by a set of rules or classification  system.  C. Types of concepts i. Conjunctive: a concept that is explained by a group of traits. The traits  female and parent describe for example a mother.  ii. Disjunctive: a concept with many attributes but if it does not have that  attribute it can still be that concept. For example a car.  iii. Relational: A concept that is described by other things like its use.  Buildings are things we go into.  iv. Faulty: Concepts that are made up of little information, stereotypes.  v. Prototype: a concept that is an example of a category. For example, a  kid thinks all dogs are big golden retrievers because he has not  experienced other dogs.  vi. Exemplar: a thing representing a typical example or model. For  example, when someone says mom you automatically know who it is.  D. Organizing concepts i. Superordinate: The general category. For example, fruit.  ii. Basic: A section of a category. For example, apples.  iii. Subordinate: an example of a category. For example, Fuji apples.  E. Schemas: representation of a concept stored in memory. Experiences and  beliefs play into schema. Schemas also influence your behavior and the way  you interpret situations.  Q: How do our schemas change? I.) Jean Piaget – cognitive theorist A. Thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.  B. Our ability to think changes over our lifespan  C. Piaget’s Periods of cognitive development: For our lecture, seven years should be six and eleven years old should be twelve.  i. Development is a process it is not something that occurs instantly.  ii. Deductive reasoning: it is the logical process of arriving at a  conclusion using evidence to support the conclusion.  iii. Inductive reasoning: a logical process in which multiple premises that  are all true are combined to make a conclusion. Kids think this way,  for example, kids think dogs are small hence any dog that is big is not  a dog.  iv. Assimilation: new information is built off old information because the  information is not necessarily new.  v. Accommodation: new information coming in forces you to change  schema. Old ideas are reconstructed to accommodate new experiences. Q: Why do we go through developmental processes and work hard to learn new things? I.) As humans we go through cognitive equilibrium: we want the world to make  sense.  II.) We hate cognitive disequilibrium: occurs when we do not understand things  happening around us.  III.) We go through this all the time: 1. Equilibrium 2. New idea 3. Disequilibrium 4. Adaptation by assimilation or accommodation of new ideas.  5. New equilibrium  Q: Why do we sometimes not see things coming? I.) The reason for this is due to biological basis of bias: we see familiar things right  away but the other stuff we do not see because it takes longer to understand.  II.) Script: specific type of schema. It describes how a series of actions should unfold. III.) Cognitive dissonance: state of having inconsistent thoughts or actions when what  happens does not match what was supposed to happen.  IV.) Formal and informal reasoning. i. Formal reasoning: guided by algorithms. Arrive at a correct answer  through steps but you can go wrong because there are assumptions  involved.  ii. Informal reasoning: assess the believability of a conclusion based on the  evidence available to support. Uses heuristics because you jump to  believability.  Q: How do we prevent this from happening? I.) Wisdom is achieved by looking at what we do not know.  II.) Way of thinking we need to adopt. A. Advanced cognitive thought: use of mental activities to learn.  i. Subjective thought: thoughts pertaining to experiences, culture, and  goals.  ii. Objective thought: thoughts pertaining to facts.  B. Cognitive flexibility: deal with unforeseen events without polarizing yourself  to dealing with them emotionally and intellectually.  C. Dialectic thought: Ability to consider a thesis and its antithesis and arrive at a  synthesis. This is the highest level of thinking. 


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