BIOL WEEK 1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
BIOL WEEK 1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD BIOL 2170
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janefrances Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2170 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Deborah Chadee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, cells, and Inheritence in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
WEEK 1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientific Method: - Make Observations - Ask Questions - Form a hypothesis and make predictions. - Test the Hypothesis (Experiment) Note: If a hypothesis is supported through continued observation and experiment over long periods of time, it is elevated to be a THEORY. Observation is the act of viewing the world around us. Observation allows us to draw tentative explanations called HYPOTHESES. A Hypothesis makes predictions that can be tested by observation and experiments. If results are NOT consistent, you can revise or reject a hypothesis. Experimentation is a disciplined and controlled way of asking and answering questions about the world in an unbiased manner. There are two types of experiments. They are:- 1. Comparative experiments: This sort of experiment looks for the difference between groups or samples. Typically, these experiments are performed in nature where tightly controlled experiments are difficult. 2. Controlled experiments: This kind of experiment is usually performed in a lab setting. Parameters can be more easily controlled. Note: Both experiments can be used by scientists, but depending on what the goal might be for the research. When using the controlled experiment, the researcher deliberately introduces something different, known as a variable, into one group that he or she hypothesizes might have some sort of an effect. This is called the test group. But one where as no effect occurs is called the control group. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observation Hypothesis Predictions Experiments or new Observations Theory Biology is the study of life. The science of how works. The living and non-living worlds follow the same chemical rules and obey the same physical laws. Characteristics of Life - Complex - Able to change in response to environment - Able to reproduce - Have the capacity to evolve The difference between living and non-living environment; Earth crust consists mainly of oxygen and silicon. The Human body = living organisms are made up mostly of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed from one form into another. Energy in the form of sunlight or food is taken up by organisms. INPUT ENERGY Conversion process in organisms Heat/Output Energy All organisms convert input energy into heat and work. No energy is created or destroyed in the process. Second Law of Thermodynamics states that disorder in any system tends to increase. Entropy can decrease locally (inside a cell, for example) because the heat released increases disorder in the environment. Life originated on Earth about 4 billion years ago, arising from non-living matter. The scientific method shows that living organisms come from other living organisms, such experiments were demonstrated by Redi and Pasteur. The fundamental unit of life is the cell. The cell is the simplest biological entity that can exist independently. All organisms are made of either a single cell or a combination of cells. In all organisms, the information archive is a remarkable molecule known as Deoxyribonucleic Acid, also known as DNA. DNA is a double-stranded helix made up of varying sequences of four different subunits. Notably, the information encoded in DNA directs the formation of Proteins (This is the key structural and functional molecules that do the work of the cell). DNA RNA (Transcription) Protein (Translation) The pathway from DNA to RNA to Protein is known as the central dogma of molecular biology. The DNA sequence that corresponds to a specific protein product is called a gene. Each organism’s DNA archive can be stably and reliably passed from generation to generation in large part because of its double-stranded helical structure. DNA is replicated, allows for genetic information to be passed from cell to cell or from an organism to its progeny. During replication, each strand of the double-helix serves as a template for a new strand. Replication is necessarily precise and accurate because mistakes introduced into the cell’s information archive may be lethal to the cell. Errors in DNA can and do occur during the process of replication, and environmental insults can damage DNA as well. Such changes are known as mutation; they can spell death for the cell, or they can lead to the variations that underlie the diversity of life and the process of evolution. The plasma membrane is the boundary that separates the cell from its environment. Cells with a nucleus are Eukaryotes. Cells without a nucleus are Prokaryotes. There are three domains of life. They are: - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions in cells that build and break down macromolecules and harness energy. All organisms use chemical reactions to break down molecules, releasing energy in the process that is stored in a chemical form called Adenosine triphosphate or ATP (This molecule enables cells to carry out all sorts of work, including growth, division, and moving substances into and out of the cell). A virus is an infectious agent composed of a genome and protein coat that uses a host cell to replicate. When there is variation within a population of organisms, and when that variation can be inherited, the variants best able to grow and reproduce in a particular environment will contribute disproportionately to the next generation, leading to a change in the population over time, or evolution. Variation can be genetic or environmental. The ultimate source of genetic variation is mutation. Evolution theory predicts that new species arise by the divergence of populations through time from a common ancestor. Evolution can be demonstrated by laboratory experiments. Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their physical environment in nature. These interactions are driven in part by the anatomy, physiology, and behavior of organisms, that is, the basic features of organisms shaped by evolution.
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