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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohannan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Hellenic Greece Solon is more sensitive to the middle class. He institutes two main reforms. 1) Establishes a jury. 2) He lowers property requirements for participation in government. This opens up the political process for the middle class. He was known as the father of Democracy. Pisistratus was a tyrant behind the scenes. The government looked like a normal democracy but he was ruling it behind the scenes badly. He was ultimately overthrown. Cleisthenes overhauls the constitution to make it more thoroughly represented. He divided the ten citizen rings (tribes) an they could elect fifty representatives to make up the city council. This makes the city council more representative of the city of Athens. Meanwhile, Sparta (arch rival) was running differently. It's unique through it military and culture. It was ruled by a monarch and never really changed or evolved. It was apart of slave uprising. IT grew and annexed lands around it. When it annexed the lands it took the people as slaves, Helots (an enslaved person). The Helots were determined to overthrow Sparta to fain control. They were such a threat to overthrow, that Sparta transformed itself to a military machine so that it was ready to defend uprisings. Little boys (age 7) were taken from families to live in government dorms to transform them into fighting machines. They took the girls too, so that they could train them to bear strong children. They educated and trained to fear ABSOLUTELY NOTHING. To never cry. It was almost robotic. Wars. There were two major wars to form the backdrop of the golden age of Greek Philosophy. First war was a conflict over two decades with the Persian Empire. Athens was the first to come to the aid of the Greeks (living on the Asia Minor) against the Persians. They other city states followed suit. It became the Delian League. One of the battle is the battle of Marathon. Greeks won and every one was surprised. This war opened up for the Peloponnesian war. Athens became the head of the Delian League because they were the first to help the Greeks. However, Athens ruler, Pericles, started to use the money and resources to extend the land for Athens. This aroused the animosity of some of the other groups (Sparta). This created a long war between Athens, and allies, and Sparta, and allies. Sparta defeats Athens and Athens suffers tremendously. They stripped Athens of their democracy and power. This creates the backdrop for Greek Philosophy, Science, and Mathematics. The foundation of the western thought started here. Three main Philosophers. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates. We know about him because of his student Plato. He reflects why the Greeks are different and so important. He starts asking big questions, philosophical questions. A lot was based on Greek mythology. The mythology around the God's base the thoughts of the world around them. However, Socrates starts asking questions for understanding outside the mythology realm. They used objective reason. They attribute a lot of things in the world to the natural instead of supernatural. Socrates. He was a moralist. He was concerned with the right and wrong. He believed that you had to send time grappling and thinking about right and wrong. "Know thyself" He hated the idea of "sleepwalking through life", He hated people who didn’t stop to ask "why am I doing what I am doing?" He wanted reason in lives. Not doing something solely because of traditions. DO something after critical reasoning, self-examination. He also believed that evil was the result of ignorance. IF you showed people what is good they would do it. Loss of humanity was lack of knowledge but when you showed them they are good. "knowledge is virtue" SO how did he educate the people. He how did he educate people? He had a lot of followers who supported him. He was a public figure, He would go into the public spaces (Agora, market place) and button whole some unsuspecting individual. He put them through the Socratic method which was a series of questions starting with general obvious questions and then got to more particular, specific questions to get to an irrefutable conclusion. This shook people up and forced them to think through things and evaluate what they believed. People did not like this and eventually he was tried for corrupting the youth. All of western thought has been inspired by either Plato or Aristotle. Plato. Idealist. Struggles with "what is reality?" He concludes that it is not what we see empirical (relies on evidence and observation based on five senses). He says that that stuff is not real. The chair that you are sitting in is not real. He says it is a dim, imperfect copy of chairness. For everything in this world that you see is empirical there is a universal form of perfect ______ness. It is perfect, timeless and never changes. The chair is not real but eh idea of it is. A lot of people had a hard time following him and understanding him. So he wrote The Allegory of the Cave. This deals with shadows on the cave. The realm of ideal forms is perfect and unchanging. Aristotle. The complete opposite. He believed that ideas are important and give the real thing function. But they are not separate. He used a syllogism. He arrived to his ideas through deduction and reason. A form of logic that has a statement and a __________ statement which arrives to a ___________. People say that people are born either Plato or Aristotle.