Police in Modern Society, Week 1 Notes
Police in Modern Society, Week 1 Notes Crim Jus 288
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Loy on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crim Jus 288 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Jason Lee in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Police in Modern Society in Criminal Justice at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Policing Week 1 Notes The Role of the Police in a Democracy Police: Living embodiment of our government Ability/right to use coercion and force Control behavior Direct interaction we have with executive branch of government Power over health, welfare, safety, etc. Control consists of: Authority (tell us what to do) Persuasion (symbols uniform, weapons, show of force) Power (can use to force you) Force (ability/right to use, to get us to comply) Totalitarianism Power invested in one person/specific political party Social policies Control specific groups E.g. Nazi Germany Rule of Law Run by laws created by democratically elected representatives E.g. what we have here U.S. Government and the Police Decentralized government Different layers (federal, state, county, city) Ideally allows for more participation Limits power of those in office Separation of powers Executive, legislative, and judicial branches Checks and balances Constrain power Democracy/ Police Conflict Police are an anomaly in a “free” society Pluralistic perspective Different groups not dominating Elitist perspective Some people have more influence in political system than others Democratic government shared consensus Provide services to us Agree to be governed but resist direct governance Social contract: Agree to have liberty limited to ensure our safety/common good Police are of course not equal then Types of Laws Civil law Relationship between individuals Preponderance of evidence “Court of last resort” Criminal law Relationship between individual and government Pose a threat Police deal with Substantive law Deal with what is prohibited E.g. driving under the influence Procedural law Governs how police actually enforce laws/exercise authority Case law Rulings from the Supreme Court Exclusively dedicated to constitutional law Discretion Individual choice about what laws will be enforced and how that enforcement will take place Limiting discretion removes potential bias Allowing discretion for grey areas/minor crimes Limited resources Public expectations Broken windows theory One small thing leads to something bigger ExpectationIntegration Model Community expectations Different races/socioeconomic status, etc. lower satisfaction Satisfaction is variable Different relationships to police E.g. Suspect, victim, bystander, informant Organizational expectations Basic assumptions Informal expectations by coworkers Police closely knit Individual expectations Each individual has their own What are the Philosophies of Policing? Law enforcement approach Justice by enforcement rational Bureaucratic Quazimilitary Professional model (full enforcement) Designed to reduce bias Political approach Cynical above the law Discretion important Community oriented model Situational considerations Community values Proactive policing When police initiate responses E.g. DUI checkpoints, interrogations Entrapment vs. crime prevention Reactive policing Responding to a problem when called Potentially more compatible with democracy Less intrusive What Police Do: Crime control Law enforcement Order maintenance Service What is the Most Important Thing They Do? Police service study (1977) 60 different neighborhoods, all shifts (24 hours) 6,000 encounters 29% crime related Majority non violent <3% violent 14% used force 10% gave tickets 5% criminal law (arrest) 71% not crime related *Communication 5/6 common activities involve talking/listening Interviewing Interrogation Lecturing/threatening Providing information Reassurance Use 3 things to do their job: Values Goals Strategies *Public attitudes matter