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by: Kulani Purkey


Kulani Purkey

GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in the third week of class.
Intro to Interpersonal Communication
Jenny Farrell
Class Notes
communication, Intro to Communication, Communications, interpersonal communication
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kulani Purkey on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 102 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Jenny Farrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Maroon = Study goals Pink = Noteworthy sentences/concluding quotations COM102 with Prof. Jenny Farrell Blue = Prompting questions/thinking statements WEEK THREE – SEPTEMBER 13, 2016 Yellow = Key terminology/vocabulary Elite Notetaker: Kulani Purkey CHAPTER THREE: PERCEIVING OTHERS At the end of these notes, you should be able to identify what perception is, the process regarding perception, different ways to perceive others in events/situations, and relating to one another. Perception is a process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting info from our sense, guiding our communication desires. - It is a process. There are five steps to the perception process, these are as follows..: 1. Selection is where you figure out what you’re going to focus on or focusing your attention on certain stimuli in your environment. a. When selecting information to focus on, one considers it s salience. i. Salience is the quality that something you’re going to focus on.. ii. Something that is salient is visually and audibly stimulating causing you to feel and experience certain emotions. iii. Something that is salient can lead us to view certain goals as important or observe it as deviating from our expectations (strange/unusual things easily grab our attention). iv. Can you think of things that you would consider salient or non- salient? 2. Organization is structuring the selected information into a coherent pattern in our mind. a. Punctuation: organizing the information into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the events i. Somebody can remember something differently than you. ii. In that case, you consider who did what first and realize that your perception and punctuation may vary from the other person.. Regardless of what is actually true, I remember MY true and you remember YOUR true. 3. Interpretation is when you are starting to make sense of stuff and assigning meaning to selected information. a. This is important for interpersonal communication! I can experience the exact same thing as someone else but interpret it completely differently.. b. When interpreting things you might use familiar information to provide reference and create explanations for behaviors. USING FAMILIAR INFORMATION Schemata is the way we understand and define concepts based on past experiences/previous knowledge (this can also be shown in talking to others and TV shows or movies). 1. Examples of Schemata could be seen in a marriage proposal or a classroom setting. a. What other examples of Schemata can you think of? b. We use Schemata to understand and interpret events, relationships and people. i. Schemata come from the culture you belong to. CREATING EXPLANATIONS 1. Attributions answer “why?”; there are two types of attributions. a. Internal attributions are suspect to be part of one’s character or personality. i. Example given: lazy, apathetic, unmotivated, etc.. b. External attributions are considered out of our hands or situational factors. i. Example given: traffic, weather,being busy/pre-occupied, etc.. c. There are often errors in attribution for other’s behaviors.. i. The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to attribute other’s behaviors to internal causes when it may be caused by external attributions. - It is a VERY common error to mistake internal attributions to one’s behavior. d. There are also errors in attribution for our own behaviors. i. The actor-observer effect is the tendency to attribute external factors to our own behavior causing us to make excuses. An example of this would be you trying to justify that you performed poorly on an exam due to the temperature of the room being distracting (or something of the like). ii. The self serving bias is the tendency to attribute internal factors to our own behaviors (usually reflecting something on a positive note). An example of this would be you justifying doing well on a quiz….when it was an open book quiz. - Ego protection is when we credit ourselves for life’s successes and feel better about who we are. CHECKING ATTRIBUTIONS 1. Keep errors in mind and consider ALL explanations. 2. Realize that there is usually a combination of both internal and external attributions. 3. ASK WHY! You can mull about it and continue to let it bother you OR just ask. UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION THEORY is the idea that when we meet people, we have goals of reducing our uncertainty of them in hopes to later predict him/her; this is just getting to know someone! You will get more comfortable over time with someone and have less uncertainty concerning them. You can explain and predict people using three different types of strategies.. 1. Passive strategiesinclude watching/observing someone or looking them up on the Internet/social media. 2. Active strategies include asking others about the person or collecting other peoples’ thoughts (examples of this could be using or 3. Interactive strategies include actually going up to the person and directly talking to them. INFLUENCES ON PERCEPTION The culture you grew up in influences your perception of others. 1. An ingrouper is someone who comes from a similar culture as you; you lookdevelop a more interpersonal and positive relationship with them. 2. An outgrouper is someone you consider different than you; you might even view their personality/actions/behavior as unsettling at times. 3. Can you think of people in your social network that you would consider ingroupers and outgroupers? Gender/sex and cerebral cortex differences havean influence on your perception. 1. Men tend to have better time and speed perception and are able to easily rotate 3D figures mentally. 2. Women tend to be more skilled in spatial relationships and identifying emotions and language skills. 3. Some scholars say when dealing with problems that: a. Men/masculine communication focuses on looking for solutions and offering advice. b. Women/feminine communication focuses on offering emotional support. i. Only 1% of communication differences are, in fact, influenced by sex. ii. We are socialized to perceive that there is a big difference. This is a problem because it can cause us to establish too many expectations, make it hard to find a compromise, and, in a sense, sets the sex up to be or act a certain way. You tend to like the same thing in other people if you like that same thing about yourself. 4. Personality is a way of thinking, feeling and acting based on traits we possess. 5. The Big Five personality traits (OCEAN) are: a. Openness – the ability to be open minded b. Conscientiousness– being goal oriented and organizationally structured with lists/tasks c. Extraversion – liking being around other people d. Agreeableness – the ability to be cooperative and easy going with others e. Neuroticism – thinking negative thoughts about yourself PERSONALITY 1. Implicit personality theories are personal beliefs about personality types and the ways traits go together. a. IPT is another way to reduce uncertainty about someone. b. We make assumptions in attempt to lower our uncertainty reduction theory of others and often assume certain personality traits go together. FORMING IMPRESSIONS OF OTHERS 1. Internal impressionsare mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them. a. They exert a profound impact on our communication choices. IMPRESSIONS 1. Gestalts are general and global impressions, either positive or negative, formed quickly and easily. a. The primacy effect states that the beginning matters and is som etimes more important than later impressions. 2. The positivity bias is used to describe when you have MORE positive gestalts than negative gestalts with someone. 3. The negativity effect puts an emphasis on negative information you lea rn about that person or thing. This could be perceived as more salient than something than something positive! 4. There are two types of effects related to gestalts.. a. The halo effect states that we positively interpret people with whom we have positive gestalts. b. The horn effect states the opposite; we negatively interpret people with whom we have negative gestalts. 5. Stereotyping is comparing positive and negative things about someone to calculate overall impressions of them. a. This is always adjusting. b. This does not place equal value on everything and is all subjective per person. c. Stereotypes are much MOREflexible than gestalts. IMPROVING YOUR PERCEPTIONS OF OTHERS 1. Empathy is described as involving/identifying with the feelings and emotions of others as an attempt to understand their perspective. 2. What is the difference between sympathy and empathy? a. Perspective-taking is when you try to see it from their perspective. b. Empathic concern is when you understand their emotions and feel what they feel. c. Empathetic mindset is the determination of whether you think empathy can be developed/controlled or not.. i. Do you think that empathy can be developed or controlled over time? Can someone learn to be more empathetic? d. To better improve your perception of others, be sure to take part in perception- checking: i. Check your punctuation. ii. Check your knowledge. iii. Check your attributions. iv. Check perceptual influences. v. Check your impressions.


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