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by: Layne

5_23Anatomy_notes_.pdf Bio

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Bio > 5_23Anatomy_notes_ pdf
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This was for the first exam Georgia Gwinnett College
Anatomy for GGC
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Anatomy 1 5- 23-16 Chapter 1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology  Anatomy: scientific discipline that investigates the body’s structure  Physiology: scientific investigation of the process or functions of living things Topics of Anatomy  Gross or macroscopic: structures examined without the microscope o Regional: studied area by area o Systemic: studied system by system o Surface: external from and relation to deeper structures as x-ray in anatomic imaging  Microscopic: structures seen with the microscope o Cytology: cellular anatomy o Histology: study of tissues Topics of Physiology  Reveals dynamic nature of living things  Consider operations of specific organ systems o Cell physiology: examines processes in cells o Neurophysiology: focuses on the nervous system o Pathology: Looking at tissue o Exercise physiology: exercise impacts physiology Structural and functional organizations  Chemical level o Atoms o Molecules  Cellular level  Tissue level  Organ Level  Organ System Level  Organism Systems: 1. Endocrine 2. Skeletal 3. Digestive 4. Nervous 5. Respiratory 6. Muscular 7. Cardiac 8. Reproductive 9. Lymphatic/ Immune 10. Integumentary 11. Urinary Characteristic of life  Organization: condition in which there are specific relationships and functions  Metabolism: all chemical reactions of the body  Responsiveness: ability to sense changes and adjust  Growth  Development: changes over time o Differentiation: change from general to specific o Morphogenesis: change in shape of tissues, organs  Reproduction: new cells versus organisms Homeostasis  Stable environment  Values of variables fluctuate around the set point to establish a normal range of values  Set point: the ideal normal value of a variable o What is the set point for body temperature? Negative Feedback  Page 11 o Figure 1-3A  1. Change detected o receptor detects change  2. Receptor sends change to control center o always aware of set point o control determines your set point o compares it to the information from the receptor o determines a course of action  3. Control center send the course of action to the effector/s  4. effectors carry out the change  5. Course of action should get you back to your set point Positive Feedback  When a deviation occurs, response is to make the deviation greater o Leads away from homeostasis o Leads away from set point  Childbirth  Blood clotting Terminology and Body Plan  Anatomical position o Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms face forward  Other body positions o Supine: lying with the face upward o Prone: lying face down  Directional terms o Superior versus inferior  Above vs. below o Anterior versus posterior  Front vs. back o Medial versus lateral  Closer to midline vs. away from midline o Proximal versus distal  Close to torso vs. away from torso o Superficial versus deep  Toward surface vs. away from the surface Body Planes  Sagittal/ Midsagittal/Median o cut along midline  Frontal or coronal o Cut down the middle sideways to get front piece and back piece  Transverse/ cross o Cut through the belly button to get top half and bottom half  Oblique: other than at a right angle o Cut a diagonal  Parasagittal o Cut off the midline o “2 inch from midline” Body Cavities  2 cavities o 1. Thoracic o 2. Abdominopelvic  divided into: 4 quadrants o 9 regions  diaphragm divides them Serous Membranes  Cover the organs of trunk cavities and line them o Parietal lines cavity walls o Visceral covers organs o Serous fluid secreted for lubrication by membranes so they are smooth  Named for their specific cavity and organs o Pericardium refers to heart o Pleura refers to lungs and thoracic cavity Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry  Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass  Mass: the amount of matter in an object  Weight: the gravitational force acting on an object of a given mass  Element: the simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties  Atoms: smallest particle of an element that has chemical characteristics of that element Atomic Structure  Composed of subatomic particles o Protons: positive charge o Neutrons: no electrical charge o Electrons: negative charge  Nucleus o Formed by protons and neutrons o Electrons run around outside of them o Most volume of atom occupied by electrons Atomic number and mass number  Atomic number: equal to number of protons in each atom which equals the number of electrons  Mass number: number of protons plus number of neutrons Isotopes and atomic mass  Isotopes: two or more forms of same element with same number of protons and electrons but different neutron number o 3 types of hydrogen o denoted by using symbol of element preceded by mass number as 1H, 2H, 3H  Atomic mass: average mass of naturally occurring isotopes Bonds  Covalent shares electrons  Ionic doesn’t share Define ionic, covalent bonding, hydrogen Talk about in there: Polar and nonpolar


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