Sociology Chapter 4: Society
Sociology Chapter 4: Society SOCI 1311-004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1311-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Dorothy Kalanzi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 4: Society Exam is still being worked out Exam will cover the first four chapters If it is blackboard friendly, it will be on blackboard. If not, it will be in class Make sure you read well! Update: Exam is on blackboard, open from 6pm Monday (9/19) to 11:59pm Tuesday (9/20) ● Society ○ People who interact in a defined territory and share culture ● Visions of Society ● Perspectives ○ Social change and the evolution of society ○ Karl Marx ■ Society in conflict ■ Highlights the struggle between segments of society over valued resources such as: ● Capitalists ○ The people who own and operate businesses for maximum profit ● Proletariats ○ The people who sell their labor for wages ■ The economy is the basis of society ■ False Consciousness ● Explaining social problems as shortcomings of individuals rather than society ■ Class consciousness ● When workers recognize that they are a class and they unite against capitalists ■ Marx believed that workers must replace false consciousness with class consciousness and rise against and destroy capitalism ■ “Workers of all Lands, Unite!” ■ The history of all existing societies is the history of class struggles, conflict over the distribution of wealth and power ■ Marx thought that in time, workers would realize they hold the key ● Change would be revolutionary and possibly violent ● Marx believed a socialist society would bring class conflict to an end ■ Capitalism ● ■ Alienation ● Experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness ● Capitalism alienates workers in 4 ways ○ Alienates through the act of working ■ Worke rs have no say ■ Work is tedious and repetitive ○ From the products of work ■ Worke rs have no ownership in the product of their work ○ From other workers ■ Work becomes competitive, not cooperative ○ From developing their full human potential ■ Only trained in one thing ■ Can’t develop all possible skills ○ ○ Gerhard Lenski ■ Technology ■ Technology moves society forward ● Society moves from simple to complex ○ Simple resemble one another people are homogeneous ● The more complex the society, the more cultural diversity they have ○ Max Weber ■ The power of ideas ■ Reason, ideas as the mover of society ■ Traditional to rational society ■ Traditional society is dominated by sentiments and beliefs passed from one generation to another generation ■ Rational society is based on deliberate calculations, human thought of the most efficient means to accomplish a task ■ Wrote The Protestant Ethic ● How reason or ideas move society ● The ideas of the calvinists (christians) paved the way to capitalism ■ Calvinist Doctrines ● The fall ○ Because Adam and Eve sinned, everyone is destined for hell ● Predestination ○ God, by his kindness and grace, prechose a select few to be saved from hell ○ No one knew they were chosen ● Many engaged in hard work to prove they were chosen ○ Hard work led to surplus, when led to classes, and subsequently capitalism ■ The religious ethic became the work ethic ○ Emile Durkheim ■ Specialization of labor ■ Formulated a theory of anomie ● A state of lawlessness where there is complete chaos ■ Modern society is the root of anomie ● Gives little moral guidance to individuals ■ The key to society’s change is division of labor ■ From the mechanical to organic solidarity ■ Mechanical solidarity ● Social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values ● Characterized by kinship (blood ties) ■ Organic solidarity ● Social bonds based on specialization and interdependence ● What holds societies together? ○ Lenski ■ Technology ○ Marx ■ The elites force an ‘uneasy peace’ (conflict) ○ Weber ■ Rational thought, reason, ideas ○ Durkheim ■ Specialization of labor ● What moves society ○ Lenski ■ Technology; from simple to complex ○ Marx ■ Conflict, revolutions ○ Weber ■ Reason and ideas ○ Durkheim ■ Division of labor ● Are societies improving? ○ Webers ■ Traditional to rational ○ Comte ■ Theological to scientific ○ Lenski ■ Simple to high tech ■ Assessment ● Technological advancement and progress but it leaves us with new sets of dangers ○ Pollution ○ Destructiveness ○ Pesticides ○ Increased wealth gap ○ Marx ■ Capitalism to socialism
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