HPRB 1710 Week 5 Notes
HPRB 1710 Week 5 Notes HPRB 1710
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HPRB 1710 at University of Georgia taught by Lindsay White in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Health and Wellness in Public Health at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
HPRB1710 Week5Notes “Fed Up” Film & Nutrition Lecture 14 September 2016 ● “Fed Up” Film ○ Exercise May Not Be the Best Weight Loss Solution Between the 1980s (the height of America’s Jane Fonda/aerobics/jazzercise obsession) and 2000, fitness club memberships doubled)–but so did obesity rates. Now experts are questioning whether the age-old “calories in, calories out” philosophy is really accurate. As author Gary Taubes puts it, “We’re not going to exercise our way out of the obesity epidemic.” ○ All Calories Are Not Created Equal As we learn in the film, 160 calories worth of almonds come with a healthy dose of fiber, which slows digestion and keeps blood sugar levels from spiking. 160 calories worth of soda, however, are absorbed straight into the liver, causing a “sugar rush” and the immediate conversion of sugar to fat. Both options are 160 calories, but they create drastically different reactions within the body. ○ Childhood Cases of Type 2 Diabetes Have Exploded Type 2 diabetes, once known as “adult onset diabetes” was virtually unheard of in children just a few decades ago. In 1980, there were zero childhood cases of the condition. In 2010, there were 57,636. 1 ○ The 1977 McGovern Report Was a Food Industry Game Changer When Senator George McGovern recommended Americans consume less sugar and fat-laden products, the egg, sugar, and meat industries were less than thrilled. They banded together and rejected the statements. The recommendations were then rewritten to encourage consumers to buy more lean products as opposed to less of the rich ones. The food industry adapted by reengineering thousands of products to be low-fat. ○ “Fat-Free” Comes at a Cost When you remove fat from food, you have a big problem: The food tastes horrible. To compensate for the lack of flavor, food manufacturers add plenty of sugar. Some products that are labeled “low-fat” actually contain twice the sugar of the original, full-fat versions. ○ No Matter What It’s Called, It’s Still Sugar Sugar has tons of other monikers, and the body processes them all the same way. Whether you see “sugar,” “high-fructose corn syrup,” “fructose,” “dextrose,” “turbinado sugar,” “sorbitol,” “raw sugar,” or some other variation on the label–it’s still sugar. ○ Sugar Shows Up in Sneaky Places The American Heart Association recommends a maximum of 6 to 8 teaspoons of sugar per day (1 teaspoon equals 4 grams). Even if you’re not pouring the sweet stuff on your cereal, it shows up in sneaky places like spaghetti sauce and salad dressing (both can contain about 3 teaspoons per serving). A breakfast of orange juice and processed cereal can put you over the daily limit in one meal. ○ Sugar is a Drug Brain scans indicate that sugar consumption fires up the same areas of the brain that are triggered by cocaine, and according to Dr. Mark Hyman, it’s eight times as addictive as the narcotic. 2 ○ Junk Food Qualifies as Health Food in Schools French fries and pizza are currently considered “vegetables” in school lunches. ○ You Can Be Thin on the Outside and Carry Dangerous Fat Inside The long-term damage of processed food consumption isn’t always visible. The acronym “TOFI” stands for “Thin Outside Fat Inside” and refers to individuals who seemingly “get away” with eating whatever they want but are hiding dangerous amounts of fat inside their bodies. (http://www.onemedical.com/blog/newsworthy/fed-up-movie/) 16 September 2016 Chapter 8: Nutrition ● Textbook Key Takeaways ○ 8.1 ■ Food is chemically complex. Nutrients are broken into macronutrients (water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). ■ Carbohydrates provide energy (4 calories per gram) and should make up between 45 and 65 percent of your daily calories. Healthy sources include fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. These foods will provide simple and complex carbohydrates, including fiber. Restrict foods high in refined carbohydrates and added sugars. ■ Proteins provide building blocks for structural components of our bodies, as well as enzymes, antibodies, and neurotransmitters. The energy contained in protein is 4 calories per gram. Between 10 and 35 percent of your daily calories should come from protein. Animal foods provide complete proteins. Plant foods are incomplete proteins. Combining some vegetables and grains completes the number of essential amino acids. 3 ■ Fats are lipids, a chemical family that also includes cholesterol. We consume most of our fats as triglycerides, which are made of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids. The number of carbons, saturation of the carbons, and shape of the fatty acids determine its properties and actions in the body. ■ Fatty acids can be divided into saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids come mainly from animal foods. Unsaturated fatty acids are either monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are further subdivided into omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. ■ Most trans fatty acids are formed through hydrogenation, a process in which hydrogen atoms are added to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Trans fatty acids can negatively affect human health. In particular, they raise the risk of cardiovascular disease. ■ Micronutrients can be divided into vitamins (organic molecules) and minerals (inorganic molecules). Vitamins are further divided into water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Major minerals are needed in larger amounts than trace minerals. ■ Plants contain other healthy substances such as carotenoids and flavonoids. ■ The Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board establishes Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), guidelines for recommended dietary intakes for nutrients. ○ 8.2 ■ The shift from small farms to large-scale agriculture and food processing created an abundance of inexpensive food. Unfortunately, many of these practices harmed the environment and human health. ■ For good nutrition, eat real food: unprocessed fruits, vegetables, and meats. Let fruits and vegetables make up at least 50 percent of every meal. 4 ■ Reading food labels can help consumers make educated food choices. 5 ○ 8.3 ■ Food allergies and food intolerances can lead to unpleasant reactions to particular foods. ■ While foodborne illnesses have declined in recent years, millions of Americans succumb to them each year. Factory farms, where large numbers of animals are closely confined, are a major source of foodborne microbes. Industry and government bear responsibility in improving food safety. Consumers can also take steps to reduce their risk. ■ Other common consumer concerns include food additives, genetic modification of agricultural crops and animals, and food irradiation. ○ 8.4 ■ Food insecurity is a pressing concern around the world. ■ People have the power to transform the way we grow, prepare, and eat food. Hopeful signs abound. ■ Consumers can make food choices that lessen the negative impact on the environment. Lecture Notes ● Food is made up of nutrients ○ food that has more nutrients will serve your body better and improve health ○ food with less nutrients will not offer much physical benefit to your body ● Nutrients ○ macronutrients ■ Water ■ Carbohydrates ■ Proteins/ Amino Acids ■ Fats ○ Micronutrients ■ Vitamins ■ Mineral 6 ● Water ○ 60% of the human body is made up of water ○ Dehydration: an abnormal depletion of bodily fluids ○ Water intoxication: excess water consumption, also known as hyponatremia ○ Most doctors recommend drinking 9 - 13 cups of water per day to ensure adequate hydration Bodily Functions Increased requirement under... Solvent for electrolytes ambient heat voice and mucous membranes in body temperature, diarrhea, vomiting tissues: mouth, eyes, respiratory and digestive tract lubricates joints, regulates body physical activity temperature, regulates nerve impulses and muscle contractions medium for moving blood cells and physical activity, nursing a baby chemicals through vascular and lymphatic systems flushes waste from kidneys and liver humidity participates in the regulation of nervephysical activity impulses and muscle contractions ● Carbohydrates ○ simple carbohydrates ■ single or paired sugars (mono or disaccharides) ■ also known as a simple sugar ■ Many names: fructose, glucose, lactose, (Generally anything ending in -ose or “sugar” is a simple carbohydrate) 7 ■ Useful for quick, short bursts of energy and rapid replenishment of glycogen stores in muscle tissue ○ Complex carbohydrates ■ long chains of sugars (polysaccharides) ■ also known as starches ■ generally starchy and or fibrous ■ long lasting, slow-burning energy (also useful for replenishing glycogen stores, but over a longer period of time) ○ Other ■ Carbs are the primary source of energy for the brain and muscle tissues ■ Carbo-loading is a myth unless the event last longer than 2 hours, as it takes about 2 hours for glycogen stores to become depleted ■ Carb-dense foods can be ranked using the glycemic index, a measurement of that food’s effect on blood glucose ■ the daily recommended value for carbohydrates is 45 to 65% of your daily caloric intake ■ 1 gram of carbohydrate is equal to 4 calories ● Protein ○ raw material the body uses for structural components (tissue growth and repair) ○ Complete proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids “Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body. As a result, they must come from food. The 9 essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.” ○ Complementary proteins contain some of the essential amino acids, but not all, as well as some non-essential amino acids ○ a person with more muscle mass will require a higher daily intake of protein ○ in general the guideline is .8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight ○ The daily recommended value for protein is 35% of your caloric intake ○ 1 gram of protein is equal to 4 calories 8 9 ● Fat ○ Facts ■ fat comprises 60% of the brain’s weight ■ adds flavor to food and promote satiety after meals ■ cushions bones and internal organs ■ lubricates skin and hair ■ regulates hormone function, assists in the absorption of some vitamins and minerals ■ insulates body from the cold ○ Other ■ Eating fat does not make you fat (eating too much of any food will most likely increase your body weight) ■ Your body needs fat for your brain, joints, and hormones to function properly ■ unsaturated fats come from mainly plant sources (oils), Coconut oil is an exception as it is high in saturated fat ■ saturated fats come from mainly animal sources (solids, think lard + butter) ■ Trans fats are artificially synthesized in a laboratory and promote many health issues. Trans fats are banned in several European countries. They are disguised by the prefix “hydrogenated”. ■ New evidence is pointing towards a high-fat diet for athletes, as it encourages the body to enter into ketosis (side note: as an athlete and a highly health-conscious individual, I do not recommend this is. Ketosis is generally harmful and dangerous to anybody, and can be fatal if you are diabetic. If you want to **maybe** lose weight, have no energy, and be hungry a lot go right ahead) 10 ● Vitamins and minerals ○ Vitamins ■ vitamin A assists in normal bodily function ■ vitamin D facilitates the uptake of calcium ■ vitamin C contributes to immune function ■ All B vitamins assist in the functioning of the nervous system and metabolism ○ Minerals ■ provides structure to bones and connective tissues ■ regulate chemical metabolic processes ■ maintain electrolyte levels ■ a few examples are calcium, iron, potassium, and sodium ○ Other ■ most of us get all the vitamins and minerals we need in our daily diet if we eat the proper amount of fruits and vegetables ■ vitamins and minerals supplements are not regulated by the FDA, as vitamin and mineral requirements vary drastically from person to person ● Organic food vs. GMO ○ Organic ■ plants grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, sewage sludge, ionizing radiation, or genetic modification ■ organic animal products are made without feeding the animal antibiotics and/or growth hormones ○ genetically modified foods ■ genetically modified organism: organism resulting from human manipulation of its genetic material (plants and animals can be genetically modified) ■ Crops can be engineered to resist herbicides, pesticides and contain additional vitamins ■ Animals can be bred to contain more meat and/or produce more milk 11 ■ ● Different classifications of diet ○ Omnivore: animal (human or non-human) that consumes both plant and animal foods ○ Vegetarian: Human who only eats food originating from plants as well as some animal products not made of animal flesh (i.e. milk, eggs) ○ Herbivore: Animal that only eats foods from plant sources ○ Vegan: human that only eats food from plant sources (no animals or animal products) ○ Plant based diet are thought to protect against and possibly reverse obesity, diabetes, and some cancers ● Food insecurity ○ reduced ability to access and utilize nutrient dense food ○ food security requires: ■ consistently sufficient quantities of food ■ resources for adequate access to nutritious Foods ■ knowledge of nutrition Basics, clean water, and basic sanitation required to use and consume food healthfully ○ reduction of food waste ■ donate unused food to homeless shelters and food banks ■ do not buy more perishable food than you can consume ● Tips on improving diet ○ Banning food from your diet creates an unhealthy relationship with food ■ foods are not classified as good or bad ■ eating or not eating certain foods does not show “willpower” ■ restrictive diets are not maintainable in the long term and increase susceptibility to developing eating disorders ○ the first step to improving eating habits is understanding what they are through assessment of your diet ○ always think about food you can add to your diet ○ Look for filling and satisfying foods; whole foods are more nutritious than processed foods. Watch your portion size as you can always get more later. 12 ○ do not skip meals, and savor your food - don't eat when you're distracted ○ DRINK WATER 13
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