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by: Meagan Samele
Meagan Samele
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

These are notes that we covered int he reproduction section.
Intro to Animal and Poultry Science
Dr. Wood
Class Notes
intro, Animal Science, Animal physiology, reproduction, Animalreproduction
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan Samele on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSC 1454 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Reproduction  Chapter 11     ● Male Anatomy   ○ Gametes produced in testicle  ○ Testicles in scrotum (scrotum outside of body)  ○ Sperm migrates into epididymis (head to tail)  ■ Moves through vas deferens   ○ Vas Deferens get cut off when they are fixed  ○ Semen=sperm+seminal plasma   ○ Ampulla  ■ “Holding tank” of semen  ■ Boar does not have that  ○ When animal is ready to mate, the penis extends to be able to reach     ● Sperm Production and Maturation  ○ Testes  ■ Seminiferous tubules (FSH)   ● Sperm develops because of FSH  ○ Cells of Leydig (LH)(Luteinizing Hormone)  ■ Testosterone  ○ Epididymis  ■ Sperm storage & maturation  ● Maturity progresses from head to tail  ● Not the same as capacitation   ○ Capacitation happens after ejaculation    ● Thermoregulation of the Testes  ○ Cryptorchid­retention of one or both testicles within the body    ● Semen Evaluation  ○ Sperm Concentration  ○ Motility  ○ Morphology   ■ Primary abnormalities  ● Head (DNA)  ■ Secondary abnormalities   ● Tail of sperm    ● Avian Male Anatomy  ○ Testes   ■ Same as mammals  ○ Vas Deferens  ■ Open into papillae located in cloacal wall  ○ Testicles are inside the body  ○ Rudimentary organ of copulation  ■ Transfers sperm to hen’s oviduct  ■ Sperm stored in sperm­host glands in the oviduct  ● 30 days for turkeys (not far past 14 days)  ● 10 days for chickens    ● Many factors influence rate of sperm production and fertility  ○ Heredity   ■ Low heritability  ■ Crossbreeding is widely used  ○ Nutrition  ■ Vitamin A   ■ Protein Level  ○ Management  ■ Heat and cold stress  ■ Handling    ● Mammalian Female Anatomy  ○ Ovary  ■ Holds the ovum (eggs)  ■ Estrogen   ○ Oviduct is where fertilization occurs  ○ Timing is essential  ○ Pig has bigger uterine horns because they have litters   ○ Bicornate uterine   ○ From uterus you go into the cervix   ○ Vagina­birth canal  ○ Embryo implants in uterine horns  ■ Cow fetus grows into the rest of the uterus because of size     ● Estrous Cycle  ○ Hormonally controlled cycle of events from one heat period to the next  ■ FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)  ● Primes follicle development  ○ Follicular phase  ■ LH (Luteinizing hormone)  ● Surge precipitates ovulation  ■ Estrogen (E2)  ● Causes symptoms of estrus (heat)  ■ Progesterone (P4)  ● Maintains the CL (corpus luteum)  ■ Prostaglandin   ● Regresses the CL  ● Signs of Estrus  ○ Red, swollen vulva  ○ Clear mucous discharge  ○ Same sex mounting  ○ Ruffled tailhead  ○ Tail Raising   ○ Squatting  ○ Winking  ○ Vocalization  ○ Frequent urination  ○ Restlessness  ○ Decreased appetite  ○ Seeking out a male  ○ Lordosis­swayback  ○ Erect ears       Duration of Heat  Length of Cycle    Animal  Average  Range  Average  Range  Ovulation  (relative to  estrus)  Heifer, Cow  12 h  6­24 h  21 d  18­24 d  30 h after  onset  Ewe  36 h  24­48 h  17 d  14­19 d  30 h after  onset   Mare  6 d  1­8 d  21 d  10­37 d  1 day before  end  Gilt,Sow  60 h  2­4 d  21 d  19­23 d  40 h after  onset  Queen (cat)  6 d  6­7 d  18 d  14­21 d  Induced by  mating  Bitch  6­12 d  2­21 d  6 months  3.5­13  1­3 days  months  after onset    ● Conception  ○ Breed near ovulation because of gametes’ short life span  ○ Fertilization takes place in oviduct  ○ Zygote implants in uterus   ● Placentation  ○ Diffuse attachment   ■ Pig and Horse  ○ Cotyledonary attachment  ■ Cattle and Sheep   ■ Placentomes­caruncles (mom­drives car) and cotyledons(baby sleeps in  cots)  ● Gestation Length  ○ Cow­285 Days  ○ Ewe­147 Days  ○ Mare­336 Days  ○ Sow­114 days   ○ Doe (goat)­150 days  ○ Doe (rabbit)­31 days  ○ Bitch­65 days  ○ Cow (bison)­270 days     ● Parturition  ○ Progesterone levels go down  ○ Estrogen, Prostaglandin, Oxytocin, and Relaxin go up  ○ Fetal cortisol seems to be the trigger    ●  1st stage of Parturition  ○ Uterus contracts and forces the fetus into the birth canal  ○ Takes about 1­6 hours   ■ Younger animals take longer    ● 2nd Stage of Parturition  ○ Beginning: fetus enters the birth canal  ○ Ends with birth of fetus  ○ Multiple fetuses: 15­30 min between each birth  ○ Takes 20 min to 2 hours     ● 3rd Stage of Parturition  ○ Expulsion of the placenta    ● Female Avian Reproductive Tract  ○ Only left side develops   ○ Ovary Oviduct  ■ Sperm host glands    ● Egg Laying Process  ○ No estrous cycle  ○ Ovulate yolk  ■ Stigma  ○ Infundibulum (18 min)  ○ Magnum (2­3 hours)  ○ Isthmus (1­2 hours)  ○ Uterus (20 hour)  ○ Vagina  ○ Oviposition every 24 hour (laying of the egg)  ○ Incubation period: 2 days (chicken)    ● Reproductive Technologies  ○ Artificial Insemination  ■ Pros:  ● Need fewer animal  ● Safer  ● Better genetics  ● Disease barrier  ● Can use older/dead sires  ■ Cons:  ● Startup cost  ● Collecting males  ● Techniques  ● Genetics  ● Estrus detection  ● Lower conception rates  ○ All Use Across Industries  ■ Beef cattle: 8­10%  ■ Dairy Cattle: 80­90%  ■ Horses: 40­50%  ■ Swine: 80­85%  ■ Sheep <5%  ■ Turkeys: 95%  ● Estrus Detection  ○ Cow  ■ Check 2x/day (4 better)  ■ “Buller” cows  ■ K­mar patches  ■ Heat watch system  ○ Ewe  ■ Marking harness on ram  ○ Sow  ■ Heat check by boar­lordosis  ○ Mare  ■ Teasing­­>winking, tail up, frequent urination     ● Insemination  ○ Timing depends on how often you heat check  ○ Techniques require extensive training in most species    ● Estrous Synchronization  ○ “Natural”  ■ Weaning in pigs  ■ Transport phenomenon  ○ “Artificial” manipulates the estrous cycle in some way  ■ Cycling animals  ● Regress CL and/or extend CL  ■ Non­cycling animals  ● Jump­start system (ovulation)  ● Follow with other hormones  ■ Anestrous­must have ovulation to have CL to manipulate (FSH, LH  needed)    ● Embryo Transfer  ○ Must have synchronized donors and recipients  ○ Nonsurgical techniques preferred   ○ Successful in all species  ○ Commercial enterprises in cattle and horses  ○ Used as biosecurity tool in swine  ○ Superovulation­give drugs to have multiple ovulations on same cycle     ● Ultrasound Use  ○ Ovarian Activity  ○ Pregnancy Diagnosis (>25 days)  ○ Fetal Age  ○ Fetal Sexing  ○ Duiding Insemination rod     ● Controlling Gender  ○ Why?  ■ Specific progeny for specific purposes  ■ Genetic improvement programs  ■ Beware the law of unintended consequences  ○ Still trying for practical technique(s)  ■ Amniocentesis  ■ Chromosomal analysis  ■ Ultrasound  ■ Semen sexing­­­holds promise     ● Lactation (chapter 12)  ○ Milk: the liquid that is produced and secreted by the mammary glands of female  mammals  ○ Two functions:  ■ Nutrition of young  ■ Passive immunity   ● Colostrum (immunoglobulins)  ○ Also provides humans with a good source of protein, energy, minerals (Ca)    ● Mik Components  ○ Carbohydrates   ■ Lactose  ○ Protein  ■ Casein and others  ■ Immunoglobulins  ○ Lipids  ■ Triglycerides primarily  ○ Calcium    ● Mammary Anatomy  ○ Cow  ■ 4 glands and 4 teats  ○ Sheep  ■ 2 glands and 2 teats  ○ Mares  ■ 4 glands but 2 teats  ○ Sow  ■ 6 to 20 glands, one teat each    ● Mammary Anatomy  ○ Alveoli (milk ducts)  ■ Secretory tissue (progesterone)  ○ Gland Cistern  ■ Collection point (estrogen)  ○ Teat Cistern   ■ Collecting during letdown (estrogen)  ■ Milk letdown­oxytocin  ○ Streak Canal   ■ Opening through which milk exits    ● Physiology of Lactation  ○ Development and growth close to puberty  ■ Progesterone, estrogen, and growth hormone  ○ Lactation initiated near parturition  ○ Milk letdown controlled by oxytocin  ○ Feedback (suckling) stimulates more production  ○ At weaning, alveoli involute (return back to original state)    ● Factors that affect Milk Production  ○ Species  ○ Genetics  ■ Holstein vs hereford  ○ Feeding, management, and health status  ○ Age of dam  ■ Mature animal produces more milk  ○ Vigor of offspring  ○ Number of offspring                           


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