Psychology 2300 week 4
Psychology 2300 week 4 PSY 2300
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2300 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Developmental Psychology with Dr. Marshall week 4 Lecture notes 9/15/16 Child Development Historically, children had the role of little adults. They worked (child labor still exists in some parts of the world) Medieval children viewed as “talented pets” no special love/treatment Different laws for children is a modern notion (no juve), severe beatings for discipline, rooted in religion Birth of child meant future laborer to help financially secure the family 1900- 200 million children working Compulsory education (Massachusetts first state to enact law in 1852, Mississippi last state to enact law in 1918) Physical Childhood Development 1. Kids are getting bigger (childhood obesity) due to overnutrition 2. Why? Technology (screen time), food choices (easier access to fast food), socio-econ status (less nutritious, high fat foods are less money i.e. cheeseburger is $2, salad is $7) 3. Children in the south have higher obesity rates 4. Correlations with entertainment media: kids do worse in school, get less sleep, higher risk of obesity, higher risk of illicit risky behavior TV best practices: limit screen time, media location (don’t put the tv in the kid’s room), monitor (time chart and limit) Premack principle: do less desirable task first.. do homework before going out or watching tv Watch tv together and discuss Prosocial Modeling: have children watch things with good messages and set good examples Motor Skills Age 2: picks up small objects, walks unassisted Age 4: cutes paper, walks down stairs, approximates circle, catches a ball Age 5: writes name, throws a ball Age 6: copies words, hops on 1 foot, catches and controls a smaller ball Researchers reported 40% of young children are unprepared when it comes to the demands of kindergarten classrooms. Early childhood education readiness skills have more to do with social interaction then reading, writing, arithmetic. Potty Training: Behaviorism. Psychologists advocate for positive reinforcement over punishment Behaviorism: applied behavioral analysis (B.F. Skinner) ABC’s: Antecedents, Behaviors, Consequences Basic Operant Conditioning Principles Reinforcer must reinforce immediately, the more you wait the less meaningful the reinforcement is Behavior Modification Steps 1. Identify problem behavior 2. Select target behavior to replace problem behavior Target behaviors: break the task down into smaller behaviors (signaling when they need to urinate, pulling down pants, sitting down, flushing, pulling up pants, etc.) Learning by teaching: helping a child understand the target behaviors Have child undress and put a doll on the toilet to help them understand the tasks. Building a greater more complex understanding of the task. Guide and Cue along the way Positive reinforcement selection: Social reinforcement (praise hug clapping etc) Concrete reinforcement (candy, food, toys, etc.) Bribing vs. Positive Reinforcement: bribing is kid receives reward before completing the task, positive reinforcement- kid receives reward AFTER completing task Childhood Cognitive Development Jean Piaget: children are not miniature adults, they think and behave differently Preoperational Stage: early childhood to the early elementary years (ages 2-7) Piaget’s Development Theory Schemes/ schemas: a mental representation: how you mentally picture a cat (everyone pictures a cat differently like different colors, but have the same features) Kid may mistake a skunk for a cat because they have less advanced schemas than adults, but this is normal because cats and skunks have many similar features, eventually the child will delineate the two. Assimilation: fitting new info into pre-existing mental schemas Accommodation: people create new schemas or adjust old ones Examples: Child learns horse schema, mistakes zebra for horse, adjusts existing schema and creates new category for zebra, child can now distinguish between horse and zebra Disequilibrium: kid with military dad associates uniform with dad, runs up to uniform man that is not dad and hugs him, looks at face, kid is in a state of disequilibrium until realizing that other men where same uniform as their dad, then return to equilibration Use assimilation before accommodation: trying to put a key into a push start car, push start the car is accommodation new knowledge Symbolic functioning: ability to mentally represent the world symbols. Pretend play: using dolls to represent real world situations giving dolls names, personalities, and preferences Children personify objects (animism) the sky is sad because its raining Think of castaway: tom hanks personifying Wilson the volleyball Centration: the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others Appearance reality distinction: children pay attention to direct appearance more than hidden dimensions in the background