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Psych 2301 Chapter 3 Notes

by: Kailey Mathews

Psych 2301 Chapter 3 Notes Psyc 2301

Kailey Mathews
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers the content in lecture over chapter 3
W staff
Class Notes
General Psycology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kailey Mathews on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2301 at West Texas A&M University taught by W staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at West Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 3 The Conscious Mind 3.1 What Does It Mean to Be Conscious?  Because of the very nature of consciousness, conscious experiences differ from person to person  Consciousness o The combination of a person’s subjective experience of the external world and the person’s mental activity; this combination results from brain activity  Most psychologists reject dualism for materialism, this idea that the brain and the mind are inseparable and that the processing of the brain allows for the experiences of the mind o When we are fully conscious, we are very alert (attention)  Have you ever begun daydreaming while reading and then realized you had no idea what you had just read? You were going through the motions of reading, but you were essentially unconscious of what you read  Salient stimulus- light blinking demands attention  Continuous – changing of alertness: not paying attention to what you read  Subliminal perception o Flashed picture on the screen o Interpretation that meaning of what you saw o The processing of information by sensory systems without a person’s conscious awareness  Through material presented subliminally can influence how people process information, it has little or no effect on complex thinking and actions  Priming (stand-up comedians)  Has unconscious way of how you react to something  Brain activity gives rise to consciousness o Psychologists examine and even measure consciousness and other mental states once considered too subjective to be studied  Psychology is beginning to reveal how brain activity may give rise to specific subjective experiences o Global Workspace Model  Consciousness is a product of activity in specific brain regions  The key idea of the global workspace model is that no single area of the brain is responsible for general “awareness”  NO case can get rid of conscious self (brain surgery, paralysis) Prefrontal “I understand plans” Primary Motor “I’m all about movement” Parietal Lobe “I’m aware of space” Occipital Lobe “I see things” Temporal Lobe “I hear things”  Split Brain o A condition in which the corpus callosum is surgically cut and, as a result, the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other  Just as the brain has been split in two, so has the conscious mind  Provides many important insights into the basic organization and specialized functions of each brain hemisphere  Consciousness has been split o Normally work together until split  Right hemisphere:  better with spatial relationships  processes left visual field information  controls left side body movements  Left Hemisphere:  Better with language  Processes right visual field information  Controls right side body movements o The interpreter  The sense-construction activity in the left hemisphere is called the interpreter  This term means that the left hemisphere is interprets what the right hemisphere has done  Doing things backwards in time  Jerry Lebe- doodling with the banana (backward justification) 3.2 How Does Sleep Affect Consciousness?  People commonly think that the brain shuts itself down during sleep, but in fact, many brain regions are more active when we are asleep than when we are awake o If sleep was only for resting, we would only need 2-3 hours at night  Circadian Rhythms o Day o Around o The regulation of biological cycles into regular, daily patterns  Changes in light register in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, witch triggers the production of melatonin o Hypothalamus- fast o Pineal gland- slow o Melatonin  A hormone released in the brain that aids the regulations of circadian rhythms, as bright light reduces production and darkness increases production o Stages of sleep  The electroencephalograph (EEG) records electrical brain activity during different stages of sleep  EEG- What has happened and what is related to is  Reason we sleep cannot be totally put to the responsibility of rest  Slow wave sleep would be about 3 hours  When deprived from REM sleep you make up for it o Confusion the next day o Double REM sleep the next night o Physiological need for REM sleep  REM: very high rates of dreaming o Major muscle groups are paralyzed o Major activity in the occipital cortex  Making up a story to the firing that are occurring in the occipital during REM sleep o Activation-Synthesis theory  Dreams are the result of the brain’s attempts to make sense of random brain activity by synthesizing the brain with activity o Sleep Disorders  Insomnia- in ability to go to sleep when you wish  Sleep Apnea-problem with breathing while you are asleep (gasping snore)  Narcolepsy- sleep periods that occur unannounced during conversation  REM Behavior Disorder  Those with the disorder act out their dreams while sleeping  Do not have normal paralysis  Sleepwalking (Somnambulism)- not aware of engaging in moving or speaking during sleep o Socicocgnitive theory of hypnosis o Psychoactive drugs are mind-altering substances that change the brain’s neurochemistry by activating neurotransmitter systems  Caffeine largest used drug Essay Question: * Explain the different ideas and theories the need for sleep * Strong points Supporting points Express in standard English


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