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Week 3 notes

by: Tran

Week 3 notes Geog 140


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This is on Migration. I have included the notes AND the photo matching thing we did in class. I tried describing the map as well as I could with each description. Dr. Buller said some of those mat...
Introduction to Human Geography
Dr. Rebecca Buller
Class Notes
migration, geography, Human
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tran on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 140 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Rebecca Buller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography in Geography at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Migration: Chapter 3 I. Basic Types of Movements: a. Cyclic movement: traveling away from home for a short period of time i. We move within our activity spaces: area within which daily activity occurs ii. Ex: commuting, seasonal movement, nomadism: traveling along a definite set of space b. Periodic movement: traveling away from home for a longer period i. Migrant labor: worker who crosses international borders in search of employment ii. Transhumance: seasonal periodic traveling of pastoralists (herder) and their livestock according to seasonal availability of pastures iii. Military service iv. Going away to college c. Migration: a change in residence intended to be permanent i. Long term relocation of an individual, household, or larger group to a new locale outside the community of origin ii. Types: 1. International: travel across country borders 2. Internal: travel within a single country’s borders d. Guest workers: migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides i. Have a short term visa ii. Send remittances to a home country: money migrants send back to -watched buzzfeed Am. Try to label the British family/friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an -#lifeofageographer important part of the economy in poorer countries II. Concepts a. Push and pull factors i. Push factor: negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale ii. Pull factor: positive conditions & perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas iii. Push and pull factors that cause migration 1. Economic conditions 2. Legal status 3. Power relationships 4. Political circumstances 5. Armed conflict and civil war 6. Environmental conditions 7. Culture and traditions 8. Technological advances b. Reasons for moving i. Forced migration: movers have no choice but to relocate ii. Voluntary migration: mover has the option and chooses to relocate 1. migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide whether to move; where to go 2. types: a. step migration i. when a migrant follows a series of stages toward a final destination ii. at one of the steps along the path, an intervening opportunity might cause the migrant to settle there b. chain migration i. further migration to a place where friends/relatives have already settled c. gender differences i. research indicates that globally males 1. are more mobile, migrate farther, have more employment choices and income d. Ravenstein’s “Laws of Migration”: i. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration ii. The majority of migrants move a short distance iii. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations iv. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas v. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults 1. Age rn we are at the most mobile 13- line graph w/ diff countries: “Changes in a country’s migration policies are reflected in the number of people entering the country and the origin of the immigrants. The United States experienced two major waves of immigration before 1930 and is in the midst of another great wave of immigration today. Major changes in the government’s policies are reflected in this graph. Push factors are also reflected, as people in different regions found reasons to leave their home and migrate to the United States.” 8-Chinese in Southeast Asia:“European colonialism also had an impact on regional migration flows in Southeast Asia. Europe’s colonial occupation of Southeast Asia presented economic opportunities for the Chinese. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, many Chinese immigrated to cities in the region to work in trade, commerce, and finance. Many remained, and today Chinese minorities in Southeast Asian countries account for substantial portions of national populations: 14 percent in Thailand, 32 percent in Malaysia, and 76 percent in Singapore. The Chinese minority in Indonesia accounts for only about 3 percent of the total population, but Indonesia has more than 200 million people, so its Chinese minority is one of Southeast Asia’s largest clusters.” 7 major islands of development: “European colonialism helped establish islands of - development throughout the world. Islands of development are often coastal cities because their establishment was based on access to trade. Islands of development are places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated.” 4 “The Atlantic slave trade”: “International migration, movement across country borders, is also called transnational migration. Forced migration involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice. The largest and most devastating forced migration in the history of humanity was the Atlantic slave trade, which carried tens of millions of Africans from their homes to South America, the Caribbean, and North America, with huge loss of life. The number of Africans sold into slavery will never be known (estimates range from 12 million to 30 million). [This figure] shows an approximation of the numbers involved, as well as the destinations of the trans-Atlantic African deportees.” 14- center of population:“National migration flows can also be thought of as internal migration flows. Historically, two of the major migration flows before 1950 occurred internally— that is, within a single country rather than across international borders. In the United States, a massive migration stream carried the center of population west (and more recently also south). As the American populace migrates westward, it is also shifting from north to south, to reflect migration flows from south to north and back again.” 1-”Legal immigration from middle/south America” “Not all immigrants are illegal. Of the estimated 37.9 million immigrants in the United States today, 26.6 million are legal immigrants. Countries recognize the need for immigrant labor, and many have policies allowing—even encouraging—legal immigrants to work under temporary visas to fill a need. Thousands of people who work in the United States and Canada are there on temporary visas to fill seasonal jobs in agriculture and forestry. In the United States, over 45,000 agricultural laborers legally enter the country each year under a program that allows unskilled laborers into the country, as long as no Americans want the jobs. In both Canada and the United States, the vast majority of legal agricultural laborers come from Mexico.” 9- Jordan yellow map:“Regional migration flows also center on reconnecting cultural groups across borders. A migration stream with enormous consequences is the flow of Jewish immigrants to Israel. At the turn of the twentieth century, fewer than 50,000 Jewish residents lived in what was then Palestine. From 1919 to 1948, Great Britain held control over Palestine, and Britain encouraged Jews (whose ancestors had fled more than a thousand years earlier from the Middle East to Europe) to return to the region. By 1948, as many as 750,000 Jews resided in Palestine, when the United Nations intervened to partition the area and establish the independent state of Israel. Following the division of the land between the newly created Israeli state and the state of Palestine, another migration stream began—600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of Israeli territories. Many sought refuge in neighboring Jordan, Egypt, Syria, and elsewhere. Through a series of wars, Israel expanded its area of territorial control and actively built settlements for new Jewish immigrants in Palestinian territories. Jewish immigrants from the Eurasian region continue to migrate to Israel. Today Israel’s population of 7.4 million (including about 1 million Arab citizens) continues to grow through immigration as well as substantial natural increase.” 11- average refugees by country of origin:“The refuge situation changes frequently as some refugees return home, conditions permitting, and as other, new streams suddenly form. Yet we can make certain generalizations about the overall geography of refugees. In the early twenty-first century, Subsaharan Africa had the largest number of refugees in the world as well as the greatest potential for new refugee flows. The second-ranking geographic realm in terms of refugee numbers was Southwest Asia and North Africa, the realm that includes the Middle East, Iraq, and Afghanistan. South Asia, as a result of Pakistan’s proximity to Afghanistan, ranked third.” 5- interaction intensity vs increasing distance graph: “When considering pull factors, the principle of distance decay comes into play. Prospective migrants are likely to have more complete perceptions of nearer places than of farther ones, which confirms the notion that the intensity of human activity, process, or function declines as distance from its source increases. Since interaction with faraway places generally decreases as distance increases, prospective migrations are likely to feel much less certain about distant destinations than about nearer ones. This leads many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplated.” 12- three children baking bread unhcr: Bredjing, Chad. “The [Sudanese] Arab Muslim government (located in the north) began a campaign of genocide early in this century against the non-Arab Muslims in Darfur. The government of Sudan funds the militia known as the Janjaweed. The Janjaweed is waging a genocide campaign against the non- Arab, Muslim, darker-skinned Africans in Darfur—a campaign that includes killing over 400,000, raping women and girls, taking lands and homes from Africans, and displacing 2.5 million people. [Here we see refugees from the Darfur region of Sudan bake bread near their tent in Chad’s largest refugee camp.” 10- houses over a dusty hill: Jerusalem, Israel. “Just a few miles into the West Bank, not far from Jerusalem, the expanding Israeli presence could not be missed. New settlements dot the landscape, often occupying strategic sites that are also easily defensible. These ‘facts on the ground’ will certainly complicate the effort to carve out a stable territorial order in this much-contested region. That, of course, is the goal of the settlers and their supporters, but it is salt on the wound for those who contest the Israeli right to be there in the first place.” 3 -“percent change …” green colored map: Percent Change in Population by State and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012. Population change factors in natural increase, immigration, and emigration. 6- house with just dust and dry: Plymouth, Montserrat. “This photo shows the damage caused by the 1995 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat… Many Montserratians fled to the United States when Plymouth was destroyed and were given ‘temporary protected’ immigration status. The U.S. government told Montserratian refugees to leave in 2005—not because the volcanic crisis was over or because the housing crisis caused by the volcano was solved. Rather, the U.S. government expected the volcanic crisis to last at least 10 more years; so, the Montserratians no longer qualified as ‘temporary’ refugees.” 2- border with crosses: Tijuana, Mexico. “Tijuana and San Diego, California are separated by a highly guarded border infrastructure that in this section includes two walls to discourage illegal crossing. Human rights activists placed crosses on the wall to memorialize people who died while attempting to cross into the United States.” Source:Fouberg, Erin H., Alexander B. Murphy, and H.J. de Blij. Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture, 9th edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.


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